Wednesday, July 29, 2015

Fort Mackinac Celebrates 200 Years in American Hands

From the July 28, 2015, Great Lakes Echo by Kevin Lavery.

At the end of the War of 1812, the British fort on Mackinac Island was returned to the United States.  The Mackinac State Historic Parks system is currently celebrating the 200th anniversary of it.

The war played a huge role in shaping the territory which eventually became the state of Michigan.  The United Staes held the fort early in the war.  On July 17, 1812, British, Canadian and Indians captured it and held it until the war's end.

The U.S. got it back on July 18, 1815.


Tuesday, July 28, 2015

British Built Fort at Chattahoochee, Florida

From the July 27, 2015, WXTL Road Trip: The Beginnings of Chattahoochee" by Georgiaree Godfrey.

Gadsden County dates back to 1821, but the territory was occupied by Native Americans for centuries before that.

Historian Dale Cox said that the British built a fort there on top of the largest Indian mound and it was designed as a forward operating base for what became Fort Gadsden on the lower river,  They planned to use the fort as a launch on an invasion of Georgia during the War of 1812.

Later, Chattahoochee was home to a U.S. Arsenal which is now on the grounds of the Florida State Hospital.  The arsenal was built there because of the vast river system that reached all the way into northern Georgia.

The city's prime location on the Apalachicola River makes it a summer hot spot for boating, fishing and paddling.


Monday, July 27, 2015

War of 1812 Exhibit Visits Paris, Tennessee

From the July 21, 2015, Paris (Tn.) Post-Intelligencer "War of 1812 exhibit to visit Paris.

This war is why Tennessee is called the Volunteer State.  A traveling exhibit will be shown at the Paris-Henry County Heritage Center July 31 through September 12 at 614 N. Poplar Street in Paris.  It is entitled "Becoming the Volunteer State: Tennessee in the War of 1812."

Many Tennesseeans played prominent roles in it, including Andrew Jackson, David Crockett, David Farragut, Sam Houston and Sequoyah.

Tennesseeans were among the "War Hawks" who were Americans who wanted to go to war with Britain.


Saturday, July 25, 2015

Marking the True End of the War of 1812 on Mackinac Island

From the July 18, 2015, Toledo News "Snyder, others marking War of 1812-related bicentennial" by Jeff Karous, AP.

Michigan Governor Rick Snyder and others are helping mark the bicentennial of the true end in the War of 1812 on Mackinac Island.

The ceremony was held July 18th at Marquette Park near Fort Mackinac and featured a peace garden dedication.

The event marked the 200th anniversary of the British withdrawal from the island after the war had officially ended months earlier.They had recaptured the fort in 1812 with the help of hundreds on Indians in one of the war's earliest operations.

The Battle of Mackinac Island, which took a month, came two years later.

So, It Didn't End With the Treaty of Ghent.  --Brock-Perry

Friday, July 24, 2015

War of 1812 Veterans' Graves in Fredericton Get Plaques

From the July 23, 2015, CBC News.

The graves of seven veterans of the war who fought for Britain now have had their graves marked with special plaques in Fredericton's Old burying Ground.  They were all members of the 104th Regiment stationed in the town during the war.

The 104th Regiment made the epic march from \Fredericton to Kingston in the winter of 1813 also served along the Niagara Frontier that year and returned to winter quarters in Kingston.

Most of these men were veterans of that march which took six weeks under harsh conditions.

Veterans receiving the plaques:

Lt.Col. Harris William Hailes
Capt. John Allen
Lt. William Barry  Phair
Capt. Andrew William Rainsford
Lt. James Augustus MacLauchlan
Capt. John Jenkins
Capt. eorge Shore

Kind of strange that all were officers.


Thursday, July 23, 2015

Ohio's George Washington Barrere

From the July 22, 2015, Highland County Press "Ghost Stories: George Washington Barrere, a man of many hats" by Susan Roush.

He and his family settled in Highland County 212 years ago, arriving in 1802.  The county was founded until 1805.  When Ohio became a state in 1803, he was appointed justice of the peace and then was elected state senator in 1805.

During the War of 1812 he was the captain of a company and after the war was an associate judge for 14 years.  His company served with the Second regiment under the command of Col. James Findlay of Cincinnati.

James Findlay was mayor of Cincinnati from 1805-1806 and 1810-1811.  After he became a major general, Findlay built Fort Findlay at the site of present-day Findlay, Ohio.

George Barrere's company rendezvoused in Dayton and marched north to Manardy's Blockhouse and from there to Detroit, Michigan where they witnessed the U.S. surrender of Detroit.  Not only witnessed, but captured.  But being volunteers, he and his company were allowed to return home.


Wednesday, July 22, 2015

General Peter Porter Receives American Flag

From the July 21, 2015, Lockport (NY) Union-Sun & Journal "War of 1812 general honored."

Elfreda Stangland, president of the Niagara Frontier Chapter U.S. Daughters of 1812, recently placed an American flag on the grave of Gen. Peter Porter on behalf of the chapter.

Porter was given the Congressional Gold Medal for "gallantry and good conduct" during the War of 1812, at the Battle of Chippewa, the Battle of Niagara and Battle of Erie.  His grave is located within an iron fence at Oakwood Cemetery in Niagara Falls

The cemetery office has a replica of the congressional medal.

There are a lot of other famous people buried in the cemetery.


Monday, July 20, 2015

Known U.S. Naval Officers Who Served in North Carolina

From N.C. in the War of 1812.

All of these men were stationed in Wilmington.

E.D. Morrison--  surgeon's mate
Julius Humphreys--  midshipman
William Jaspar--  midshipman
Joseph Spiknall--  midshipman
John Mooney--  sailing master
James Moore--  gunner


Sunday, July 19, 2015

Three Unforgettable Sounds from the War of 1812

From the June 4, 2015, Lebanon Daily News by Bruce Kauffman.

1.  Anything from that poem, later set to music, from amateur poet Francis Scott Key, but especially "Oh Say Can You See."

2.  "Don't Give Up the Ship"  spoken by James Lawrence in the battle between the USS Chesapeake and HMS Shannon.

3.  "We Have Met the Enemy and They Are Ours" written by Oliver Hazard Perry after the victory at the Battle of Lake Erie.  He flew the words of #2 from his flagship the USS Lawrence.


Saturday, July 18, 2015

North Carolina's War Governor, William Hawkins-- Part 2

A strong supporter of the federal government during the war and assisted in raising an additional volunteer militia of nearly 7,000.

Even though he supported the war effort, he believed the national government ignored his state.

At the beginning of the war, the state had less than 10,000 militia.  Madison asked for 7,000 militia troops from N.C. and they were sent.  Many of these were of Scotch descent.

In July 1813, British Admiral George Cockburn had nearly 100 ships off the N.C. coast at Ocracoke.  It was feared an attack on New Bern was forthcoming.

Hawkins routinely surveyed the state's coastal defenses.


North Carolina's War Governor, William Hawkins-- Part 1

From Wikipedia.

This is the man who took a particular interest in Fort Hampton.

William Hawkins, governor of North Carolina during the War of 1812.

Born 1777, died May 17, 1819.  17th governor, serving from 1811 to 1814.Born on the Pleasant Hill Plantation in Vance County, N.C..  Studied law at Princeton and worked two years in Georgia as the Creek Indian agent.

Returned to N.C. to practice law in 1801.  Elected governor by the North Carolina General Assembly in 1811  He served terms that ran concurrent with the War of 1812.


Colonel James Welborn of N.C.-- Part 2

From Stopping

James Welborn had risen to the rank of brigadier general in the N.C. militia by the time of the War of 1812 but resigned to become a colonel in the regular U.S. Army.  As such, his main responsibility was to recruit and train soldiers from North Carolina and surrounding states.

He returned to public service after the war.  In 1992, the Carolina Glue Chip Company in Wilkesboro was charged with misdemeanor grave desecration after building their plant on top of the Welborn Cemetery where James was buried.


Friday, July 17, 2015

Colonel (General) James Welborn-- Part 1

From Stopping

James Welborn was appointed general in the N.C. militia after the Revolutionary War  He served 27 years as a state senator between 1796 and 1833.  While a senator he made great efforts to have the state build a turnpike from the mountains to the sea, but failed to get it passed.

he was buried at his plantation, "The Bends" about three miles west of Wilkesboro.  There is a report that the cemetery was subsequently destroyed.


Back to N.C.'s Fort Hampton-- Part 2: General James Welborn

Back on June 18th, I mentioned that most North Carolinian soldiers during the War of 1812 were folded into the U.S. Army's 10th Regiment under Col. James Welborn of Wilkes County who had resigned his commission as general in the N.C. militia in order to join the regular army.

From Find-a-Grave.

General James Welborn.  Born Nov. 29, 1767 in Randolph County, N.C. and died Dec. 4, 1854 in Wilkesboro, N.C..  He is buried in the Welborn Cemetery.

There is a N.C. highway marker for him which reads:

"Served 27 years as state senator; Colonel in the War of 1812; delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1835.  Grave is 1/5 mile N."


Back to North Carolina's Fort Hampton-- Part 1: Recruiting for the Army in the State

From N.C. War of 1812.

It's been awhile since I've been writing about this fort as I have been covering Michigan's Fort Gratiot, which was designed by Charles Gratiot, the same man who engineered Fort Hampton.  Then, of course, I wrote some about the Salt Battery at Youngstown, New York, along what was called the Niagara Frontier during the war.

Many of the soldiers serving at Fort Hampton were from North Carolina.

U.S. Army Major William S. Hamilton was appointed to the rank of colonel and placed in charge of recruiting for the state of North Carolina.

Col.Hamilton considered it an opportunity for those with "a pure spirit and sacred impulse."  He promised he would equip volunteers into the U.S. Army in "Rifle dress and give you your favorite weapon, and you will cover yourselves with glory."

Pay for the enlistees ran from $8 to $12 a month, plus they would get a $124 bounty for enlisting and 160 acres of land when the war was over.

This land, of course, was in the west and went a long way toward getting new settlers to the frontier areas.


Thursday, July 16, 2015

General George Meade at Fort Gratiot

George Meade, who later achieved fame for winning the pivotal Battle of Gettysburg during the Civil War was at Fort Gratiot in 1857.  He relieved Lt.Col. James Kearney on the Lakes Survey Mission on the Great Lakes.

Meade completed the survey on Lake Huron.


Fort Gratiot Reactivated for the 1827 Winnebago War

From Wikipedia.

The Winnebago War of 1827 took place in the Upper Mississippi area, principally in what is today Wisconsin.  It was not really a war, actually just a few attacks on American civilians by members of the Winnebago (Ho-Chunk) Indian tribe.

Most of the Indians in the region didn't join in the fight and the Ho-Chunk were forced to cede the lead mining region to the United States.


Wednesday, July 15, 2015

Exterior Work on Fort Gratiot Hospital Nearly Completed-- Part 2

Baker College of Port Huron, Michigan, has given $10,000 to the project as they are building student housing on what was once the Fort Gratiot Military Reservation.  Overall, the project had raised $41,000 and it is expected another $10-12,000 will be needed to complete it.

The fort was built in 1814 and engineered by Charles Gratiot.  After it was abandoned by the Army for awhile, it was reopened during the Winnebago War of 1827 and it also experienced the start of the cholera epidemic of 1832.

Several officers who later achieved fame during the Civil War were posted there over the years leading to the war.  Probably the most famous was Army of the Potomac commander George Gordon Meade, the victor at the Battle of Gettysburg.


Exterior Work on Fort Gratiot Hospital Nearly Completed-- Part 1

From the April 14, 2015, Times Herald by Bob Gross.

The building is now sheathed in a moisture barrier of what is considered the oldest wooden structure in St. Clair County which is now nearing restoration.  Its windows are being made and the front porch is being constructed.

The work is being overseen by the Fort Gratiot Hospital Heritage Committee.

The hospital was built in 1829 and had space for the post surgeon and a hospital ward.  After the fort was finally shut down in 1879, it was moved and split in two.  It was then located on St. Clair Street.

Port Huron bought the two houses were bought by Port Huron in 2002 and reunited them at the city's Lighthouse Park adjacent to the Fort Gratiot Light Station County Park.


Monday, July 13, 2015

Salt Battery's Armament

I have been unable to find out how many cannons were mounted at the Salt Battery or what their calibers were.


Salt Battery-- Part 4: Did damage to Fort George

For the attack on British Fort George on May 27th, the Americans built a number of boats at Five Mile Meadow by the Niagara River with orders to bring them to Four Mile Creek.

When the boats were launched on the 26th, a small British battery opened fire on the Americans.  This brought on a general bombardment between the two forts and their batteries on either side of the river.

According to reports, the Salt Battery at Youngstown inflicted severe injury upon every wooden building in or near Fort George.


Salt Battery-- Part 3: A Powerful Work

Another source, Lossing's Field Book of the War of 1812,  said the British had outlying batteries from Fort George along their side of the Niagara River and that the Americans had a powerful work called the Salt Battery in the lower part of Youngstown opposite Fort George with two batteries above it and two between it and Fort Niagara.

Saturday, July 11, 2015

Salt Battery-- Part 2: One of Six Batteries

Another source said the Salt Battery was the largest of six batteries built by Americans between Fort Niagara  and the south edge of Youngstown.  All were sited for firing across the Niagara River at the British Fort George, not for protecting the river.

British forces marched through Youngstown on the night of Dec. 18-19, 1813, on their way to capture Fort Niagara.  They easily overcame a small picket detachment in the village.  This source says Salt Battery was built of bags of salt and earthen mounds and was easily overrun by the British.

The battery was rebuilt in in the summer of 1814 by American troops from Brown's Army in preparation for a siege of Fort Niagara.

The History Marker Data Base has pictures of the marker and looking in all directions.  Another site has a view of Fort George on the other side of the river from Salt Battery.


Salt Battery in Youngstown, New York-- Part 1

In the last entry I mentioned the walking tour going on today in Youngstown as going to visit the Salt Battery.  I did some more research on it.

It was an important part in the defense of the Niagara Frontier and located very near to Fort Niagara in the present city of Youngstown.  It was an impromptu battery hastily constructed to protect the village docks constructed partially with 400 barrels of salt, where it got its name.

I found another source that said salt bags were used.

A marker was put up in 1935.  It is now in a small town park in a residential area.  Nothing of the battery remains.

During World War II a POW camp was housed at Fort Niagara which held German and Aistrian soldiers, sailors, airmen captured in North Africa and Europe.  Today, the former site of the camp is in a sports field used for seasonal soccer and Fort Niagara activities.


Friday, July 10, 2015

Women Along the Niagara Frontier in the War of 1812-- Part 2

The four women are: Catherine Young of Niagara, Upper Canada, and Rebecca Swain, Agnes Greensitt and betsy Doyle.

Catherine Young was born in New Jersey and immigrated to Niagara after the American Revolution along with her American-born husband.  She was the first of the four women to experience the horrors of the war when retreating American troops burned Niagara on Dec. 10, 1813.

Several days later, the other three were forced to leave their homes on the American side of the Niagara River when the British and their Indian allies burned the Niagara Frontier from the Lake Ontraio shore to Buffalo and on into Williamsville.  They were all turned out into the snow and Agnes and Betsy had children.

The walk begins at Falkner Park and then goes to the former site of Greensitt's Tavern and the War of 1812 Salt Battery.  Then it proceeds on to John Young's store on the bank of the Niagara River and then to the Swain homestead on River Road.


Women Along the Niagara Frontier in the War of 1812-- Part 1

From the July 4, 2015, Niagara-Whitfield Tribune "Youngstown Heritage Committee to Host walking tour July 11."

Something to check out if you're in the area of Youngstown, New York.  "Women's Voices: A Different View of the War of 1812."  The walk will take place July 11th at 6 p.m..  It will begin at the Peace Garden at Falkner Park on Main Street and will be led by historian Raven Noonan.

The walk will focus on the Dec. 19, 1813 burning of Young's Town by British forces.    This burning was in retaliation for the burning of Niagara, Upper Canada on December 10, 1813, by Americans.

It is the story of four women and their experiences.


Thursday, July 9, 2015

Some Interesting Facts About Port Huron, Michigan-- Part 2

**  1857:  On Feb. 3 Port Huron became an incorporated city.  It consolidated with the villages of Fort Gratiot, Desmond, Huron and Peru.

**  Prior to the Civil War, Port Huron was an important terminus for the Underground Railroad.

**  The population grew rapidly after the 1850s because of shipbuilding and the lumber trade.

**  In the years after the Civil War, Port Huron was the second largest immigration point in the United States.  Only the one in New York City at Ellis Island was larger.

**  The Thomas Edison Boyhood Home is located in Port Huron.


Some Interesting Facts About the City of Port Huron, Michigan-- Part 1: A Thomas Edison Connection

From the city site.

**  French explorer Daniel Greysolon Duluth established Fort St. Joseph near the present site of the Blue Water Bridge in 1686.

**  1814:  Fort Gratiot was established at the base of Lake Huron and was considered the first organized population in the area.  It was built near the site of Fort St. Joseph.

1825:  Fort Gratiot Lighthouse was built.  It was the first lighthouse in Michigan.  The present lighthouse was built in 1829.

1854:  Thomas A. Edison's family moved to Port Huron where he worked at the railroad selling newspapers and "testing" his new inventions. That explains the Thomas Edison Parkway in Port Hudson.  I did not know he lived there.

More to Come.  --Brock-Perry

Wednesday, July 8, 2015

Some More on Fort Gratiot-- Part 2: The Hospital

When the fort was abandoned in 1879, the hospital  was split in two for private residences.  They were then moved to what is now St. Clair Street, immediately behind (west) of the current Blue Water Convention Center/Hilton.

In the 1970s and 1980s, archaeological work determined the two structures were authentic and had once been a single building.  Between 2000 and 2002, the Port Huron Museum acquired both houses and moved them to Lighthouse Park which is owned by the City of Port Huron.  There they were once again aligned side-by-side in a stockade-fenced lot.

Restoration of it began in 2012 and will be carried out in phases.


Some More on Fort Gratiot-- Part 1: Civil War Service

And to think I didn't know anything about this fort a month ago.  I sure know stuff now.

From the Port Huron website.

The original fort is now where the Thomas Edison Parkway and Greenway are located as well as some parcels south and west of it.  (Wonder why they would name it after Thomas Edison.  Probably another story.)

From 1829-1830, Fort Gratiot was rebuilt with timber framed structures, including officers quarters and the hospital building.  these structures were moved several times within the confines of the fort, finally ending up on the western corner.

During the Civil War, it served as the site for training for several Michigan regiments which served with distinction.  the fort played a significant role in the westward expansion of the United States.


Tuesday, July 7, 2015

Fort Gratiot Lighthouse

From the Pure Michigan Site.

Port Huron, the home of Fort Gratiot, is also the home of the Fort Gratiot Lighthouse, the first and oldest lighthouse in Michigan and the oldest on Lake Huron.

It is the oldest operating light on the Great Lakes, established in 1825 and rebuilt in 1829 and 1869.

The lighthouse is located on Lake Huron by the mouth of the St. Clair River and stands 86-feet tall and is made of red brick and painted white.  The keeper's house and fog whistle house are painted painted red.

The lighthouse was built just north of the fort.


Fort Gratiot Township

From Wikipedia.

Fort Gratiot Township in St. Clair County, Michigan is named for Fort Gratiot which was located there from 1814-1879.

It was established in 1887 and was named for General Charles Gratiot, the engineer who built the fort.  It is next to the city of Port Huron.

Pine Grove Park in Port Huron occupies part of the fort's former site.


Monday, July 6, 2015

Fort Gratiot-- Part 2: Built for $3,055.57

Buildings also constructed at the time included barracks for 200 soldiers, officers quarters, a hospital, guard house, powder magazine and storehouse.

Fort Gratiot was completed in five months at the cost of $3,055.57.

At the end of the War of 1812, the troops were sent elsewhere and the fort officially abandoned 30 June 1821.  The troops then were sent to Fort Detroit.  It was regarrisoned in 1828 during the Winnebago Conflict and rebuilt between 1828 and 1830.  A garrison was then present until 1 June 1879 when the Army again abandoned it, this time permanently.

Its present status is that there is one relocated marker and a hospital/officers quarters being restored on the site.  These are the only two things indicating its former use.

It is located near the Blue Water International Bridge connecting with Canada.


Fort Gratiot-- Part 1: Charles' Fort

Since I am on the subject of Charles Gratiot, not only did he build this fort, but also had it named after him.

From Wikipedia.

1814-1879, U.S. Army fort established by Port Huron, Michigan, near the end of the War of 1812 by Charles C. Gratiot, 2nd U.S. Infantry.  Named after its builder.  Abandoned 1821-1828.  Garrisoned after that until 1879 when it was permanently abandoned.

Constructed near the shore of the St. Clair River at the southern end of Lake Huron.  A rectangular fort with bastions at each corner measuring 190-feet-by-290-feet.

The riverside wall was made of vertical log pickets.  The other three walls and bastions were earthworks with a wide, shallow ditch in front of each.

Nine cannons were initially placed in the fort, including two 18-pdrs.,, two 12-pdrs. and one howitzer.  The biggest cannons were all removed to Fort Malden in October 1814.


Saturday, July 4, 2015

Celebrating the First War of Independence Today

The War of 1812 is often referred to as the Second War for American Independence.  This time fought to achieve nation status with Britain who continually disrespected the country even after they granted the colonies their independence.

So happy Birthday.  --Brock-Perry

Charles Gratiot Sr.-- Part 2: An Influential Man of St. Louis

He petitioned the U.S. government for the $8,000 in supplies he had given to George Rogers Clark during the American Revolution, but did not receive the money.  He did, however, receive land in Kentucky in lieu of it.

In 1795, he hosted William Clark in St. Louis and also assisted Meriwether Lewis as translator with the Spanish governor of Louisiana.  Charles was an official witness to the transfer of the Upper Louisiana Territory from Spain to France and then to the United States in 1804 in what is called the Ceremony of the Three Flags.

Later he was appointed judge of the Court of Common Pleas, Justice of the Peace and clerk of the Board of Land Commissioners.

He died of a stroke in St. Louis and is buried at Calvary Cemetery in St. louis, where son Charles is also buried.


Charles Gratiot Sr-- Part 1.: Supplied George Rogers Clark

From Wikipedia.

1752- 20 April 1817.  Charles Gratiot's father.  Was a merchant trader during the American Revolution, whose declaration of Independence we are celebrating today, though he was not living in one of the 13 colonies.

he was born in Lausanne, Switzerland and emigrated to Montreal where his uncle was involved in the North American fur trade.  Later, he moved to Illinois country and opened a store in 1777 in Cahokia.  He provided supplies to George Rogers Clark in 1778 for his campaign against the British in Illinois and Indiana.  Gratiot provided Clark with $8,000 in supplies and was never reimbursed.

In 1781, Gratiot relocated to St. Louis, across the Mississippi River and married Victoire Chouteau, daughter of Pierre Laclede Liquest, another influential merchant of the city.  They had 13 children, including Charles and his brother Henry


Friday, July 3, 2015

Michigan's M-3, Gratiot Highway-- Part 2

Historically, Gratiot Highway was one of 13 main Indian trails in the area.  After the fire in 1805, Detroit created a 120-foot right-of-way for each of five main avenues, Gratiot being one of them.

Earlier, Gratiot Highway was called the Detroit-Port Huron Road and was authorized by the U.S. Congress on March 2, 1827, as a supply route between Detroit and Fort Gratiot at Port Huron.  Construction in Detroit began in 1829 and was completed that same year to Mount Clemens.  The rest was finished in 1833.

The road was named for the fort at Port Huron which was named for Col. Charles Gratiot, its supervising engineer.  This fort was built in the aftermath of the War of 1812.


Michigan's M-3, Gratiot Highway-- Part 1

From Wikipedia.

Michigan's M-3 is a north-south trunkline highway running 43 miles long in the Detroit Metro Area.  For most of its length, it is known as the Gratiot Highway.  It starts in downtown Detroit and runs northward along one of the city's five main avenues.  Along the way, it passes several historic landmarks and a historic district.

It is one of the original avenues laid out by Judge Augustus Woodward after the Detroit Fire of 1805.  Later, it became a supply road to Fort Gratiot in Port Huron.

It was included in the State Trunkline System of 1913 and was signposted in 1919.  After that, it was a part of US-25 before being replaced by I-94 in 1960.  It received its M-3 designation in 1973.


Thursday, July 2, 2015

Ceremony of the Three Flags-- Part 4

On November 30, 1803, Spain formally transferred the Louisiana Territory to France in New Orleans...On December 20, 1803, New Orleans and the rest of the Louisiana Territory was transferred to the United States.  The new governor of the territory was William C.C. Claiburne.

But navigation of the Mississippi River was closed for the winter by then and word did not reach St. Louis.

On March 9, 1804, Adam Stoddard, the lt.-governor of Upper Louisiana and Meriwether Lewis arrived in St. Louis by boat.  The Spanish flag was lowered that day and the French flag hoisted to fly for 24 hours..  The next morning, March 10, 1804, the U.S. flag was raised and the ceremony was complete.

The events of these two days are referred to as the Three Flags ceremony or the Ceremony of the Three Flags, which Charles Gratiot witnessed.

This is why the Lewis and Clark Expedition did not begin in 1803.



Ceremony of the Three Flags-- Part 3: Lewis and Clark Delayed

On April 30, 1803, the United States bought the Louisiana Territory from France, but did not take possession of it.  Spain continued to administer it as it had not officially turned it over to France.

President Thomas Jefferson ordered Lewis and Clark to explore the territory, but Spain would not allow them to do so.  So, Lewis and Clark spent the winter 1803-1804 at Camp Dubois in the then Indiana Territory (now Illinois), opposite the confluence of the Missouri and Mississippi rivers.