Monday, December 31, 2018

George Ronan-- Part 9: George Ronan and the Fort Dearborn Massacre

From the Together We Served site.

From August 19, 2009, WLS AM  "Historian wants recognition for forgotten hero."  Frank Mathie.

Almost all Chicagoans have heard about the Fort Dearborn Massacre.  But very few of us have ever heard of Ensign George Ronan.

Ronan was a hero of that battle in the War of 1812, and now a Chicago historian, Victor Giustino, wants recognition for that forgotten man.

In this age of political correctness, the Fort Dearborn Massacre is now referred to as the Battle of Fort Dearborn.  And at 18th and Prairie along the lakefront, a new historical marker tells the story of how 91 people - soldiers, men, women and children - who were fleeing Fort Dearborn were attacked by 500 Potawatomi Indians.  More than half the Americans were killed.


Saturday, December 29, 2018

George Ronan-- Part 8: Did He Insult Captain Heald?

From the Together We Served Site.

From the book "Checagou:  From Indian Wigwam to Modern City 1673-1835.

In March 1811, George Ronan, a young cadet direct from West Point, was given the rank of ensign and ordered to repair at once to Fort Dearborn.  Practically our only estimate of him  is one recorded by Mr. Kinzie.

At the height of the panic over the murders at the Lee farm, Ronan volunteered to lead a squad of soldiers to the rescue of the Burns family, which was believed to be in imminent danger of slaughter.

On the fateful day of the evacuation [from Fort Dearborn] four months later, Ronan is pictured as uttering an impudent taunt to Captain Heald.  If he actually committed this fault, he offered the best possible atonement a little later, when "mortally wounded and nearly down"  he continued to fight desperately to the end.


Friday, December 28, 2018

George Ronan-- Part 7: His Legacy

George Ronan is usually considered the first West Point-educated officer to die in the War of 1812.  He was an ensign, which made him the lowest rank of officer in the U.S. Army at the time.  That rank has been abolished and today would be a second lieutenant.

Sculptor Henry Hering, in his 1928 "Defense" bas relief mounted on the Michigan Avenue Bridge, adjacent to the site of Fort Dearborn, centered it on an unnamed junior officer depicted as protecting women and children civilians.  That was probably Ronan.

Ronan Park, a 3-acre unit of the Chicago Park District is located at 3000 West Argyle Street on the Chicago River and named in his honor.


George Ronan-- Part 6: His Death

On the morning of August 15, 1812,  Nathan Heald and George Ronan led their force and civilians out of Fort Dearborn, 93 persons in all.  And, they ran into the Potawatomi ambush.  It quickly turned into a massacre.

Witnesses said they saw Ronan continuing to fight even after he was mortally wounded.  They say he killed two warriors before he died.

Survivors believe the spot where he was struck down was at or close to what is now  the intersection of 21st Street and Indiana Avenue in the Prairie Avenue neighborhood of Chicago's Near South Side.


Thursday, December 27, 2018

George Ronan-- Part 5: Ronan and His Commander Did Not Get Along

Although he didn't know it at the time, George Ronan had been posted to one of the hottest spots on the frontier.

Ronan was described by survivors of the massacre as a high-spirited young man who did not get along well with the fort's commander, Captain Nathaniel Heald.  It is thought this was the reason Heald kept assigning Ronan increasingly dangerous operations outside the fort's walls.

One of the things Ronan was to do was to try to knit the diverse inhabitants of the area into a group, but some were French-speaking, others English-speaking and still others  were Indians.

When war broke out, Nathaniel Heald received orders to evacuate the post and move to Fort Wayne, Indiana.  News of this evacuation, scheduled for August 15, 1812,  emboldened the Chicago "British" band of Potawatomi who took a position two miles south of the fort along the shore of Lake Michigan where they planned to attack  the Americans.


Wednesday, December 26, 2018

The Rank of U.S. Army Ensign

In the last four posts about George Ronan I have mentioned his rank as an ensign.  Now, before I started this blog I knew of the Navy rank of Ensign, which is the lowest of the officer grades, but I'd never heard of an ensign.  I know that the lowest Army officer rank is 2nd lieutenant.

The Merriam-Webster Dictionary has three meanings for ensign:

1.  A flag that is flown (as if by a ship) as a symbol of its nationality.

2.  An infantry officer  of what formerly was the lowest commissioned rank.

3.  A commissioned officer in the Navy or Coast Guard ranking above a chief warrant officer and below a lieutenant junior grade.

Wikipedia says the ranks of ensign and cornet were abolished by the United States Army in the Army Organization Act of 1815.

So, George Ronan would be the second definition.  Today, he would have been a 2nd lieutenant.

In Case You're Wondering.  --Brock-Perry

George Ronan-- Part 4: Setting the Stage for the Fort Dearborn Massacre

One of the most threatened American forts on the Frontier  was a small stockaded fort associated with a fur-trading post near the southern tip of Lake Michigan.  Although the Chicago River and the area is flowed through was officially a part of the United States, the Fort Dearborn soldiers and fur traders were tremendously outnumbered by adjacent bands of Indians.

The predominant Indian group in the area was the Potawatomi nation, who remained allied with the British though their land had been ceded to the United States at the end of the American Revolution at the 1783 Treaty of Paris.

On the Great Lakes, the years before the War of 1812 saw increasingly embittered competition between British-Canadian fur traders and American merchants and fur traders, many of whom were in alliance with the interests of the powerful John Jacob Astor and his American Fur Company.


George Ronan-- Part 3: Killed a Year After Commissioning

From Wikipedia.

Ensign George Ronan was a commissioned officer in the United States Army.  Educated at West Point, he was assigned to the 1st Infantry Regiment in 1811, and assigned to duty at Fort Dearborn, a frontier post at the mouth of the Chicago River.  Just over a year later, he was killed in combat there and as such was the first member of the West Point Corps of Cadets to die in battle.

He attended the Military Academy for almost three years from June 1808 to March 1811.  At the time eh graduated, the  Academy was just six years old and he was commissioned in its ninth year.  And, there weren't a lot of cadets attending at the time.


Monday, December 24, 2018

George Ronan-- Part 2: "At Least He Dies Like A Soldier"

At what is today referred to as the Fort Dearborn Massacre and died.

Fighting a "vastly superior force of savages, two of who he slew in a hand-to-hand fight, but, while upon his knees as he had fallen faint from his bleeding wounds, still wielding his sword, he himself was killed , in the Combat, August 15, 1812:  Aged 28."

"I pointed to Ensign Ronan, who, though mortally wounded and nearly down, was still fighting with desperation on one knee.

"Look at that man! said I.  At least he dies like a soldier."

The exact spot of this encounter was about where 21st Street crosses Indiana Avenue.


George Ronan, Mortally Wounded at Fort Dearborn-- Part 1

From the For What They Gave On Saturday Afternoon site.

While researching for Col. James Gibson, I came across his name.


Born New York.  Appointed to USMA from New York.

Military History Cadet of the Military Academy, June 15, 1806, to March 1, 1811, when he graduated and was promoted to Army Ensign, 1st Infantry, March 1, 1811.

Served on the Northwest Frontier, 1811-1812; and in the War of 1812-1815 with Great Britain, being engaged in Captain Heald's desperate engagement  near Ft. Chicago, Illinois,  (Fort Dearborn).


Sunday, December 23, 2018

In Case You're Wondering What A Sortie Is

Both Colonels Eleazor Wood and James Gibson were killed on September 17, 1814, during a sortie from Fort Erie, Upper Canada (Ontario today).

In case you're not completely sure what a sortie is:

Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines a sortie as a sudden issuing of troops from a defensive position against the enemy.

The site says a sortie is a rapid movement by troops at a besieged place to attack the besiegers.

I had this question yesterday at the meeting of the McHenry County Civil War Round Table discussion group in connection with plane attacks during World war II.  I have across that term many times in connection with planes and wasn't sure if it referred to one plane or a group of planes.

Yesterday I was told it could either be one plane or a group of planes that would be a sortie.

However, the Merriam-Webster Dictionary says it is one mission or attack by a single plane. says it is the flying of one airplane on a combat mission.

Well, sort me out.

Signed:  Confused in Illinois.  --Brock-Perry

Two West Point Graduates Killed at Fort Erie Sortie in 1814

I have been writing about West Point graduate Col. James Gibson who died at the Sortie from Fort Erie in 1814.   Fort Gibson in New York Harbor was named after him.

Also killed at Fort Erie was West Point graduate Eleazor Wood.  Fort Wood (today the base of the Statue of Liberty) was named after him.


Friday, December 21, 2018

Col. James Gibson-- Part 6: The Painting

A painting done by E.C. Watmough in 1840 titles "Repulsion of the British at Fort Erie, August 15, 1814," shows two officers prominently.  They are reputed to be  Eleazor Wood and James Gibson.  Both Col. Wood and Col. Gibson distinguished themselves here and both died here of wounds received on September 17, 1814.

However, a recent description of the painting says Lt. John Watmough was the one thought to be Gibson.  He was later brevetted  for his "gallant and meritorious" conduct at Fort Erie.

I can't help but notice that the painter and Lt. John Watmough have the same last name.  Brothers?


Thursday, December 20, 2018

Col. James Gibson-- Part 5: The Campaign of 1814 and Defense of Fort Erie

In the Campaign of 1814 on the Niagara Frontier, he was engaged in the defense of Fort Erie, Upper Canada, from August 3 to September 17, 1814.  Actions there he was involved in included the Bombardment August 13-15, Repulse of the enemy's assault August 15, while in command of the 4th Rifles which he had commanded since February 21, 1814.

His death came during the Sortie from Fort Erie upon the British batteries and siege works, September 17, 1814.  He was 33 years old at the time.

The fort in New York Harbor on Ellis Island was named in his honor after his death.


Wednesday, December 19, 2018

Col. James Gibson-- Part 4: Military Career

From the "For What They Gave  On Saturday Afternoon" blog site  "James Gibson."

Cadet of the Military Academy , Oct. 20, 1806, to Dec. 12, 1808, when he graduated and was promoted to First Lieut. Light Artillery, Dec. 12, 1808.

Served in garrisons at Atlantic posts and on the Southwest Frontier, 1808-1812; Captain Light Artillery, May 2, 1810.

War of 1812 on the Niagara Frontier in 1812 and participated in the attack on Queenstown Heights, Upper Canada, October 12, 1812.

Major, staff, Asst. Inspector General, April 2, 1813.    Colonel, staff Inspector General  July 13, 1813.


Col. James Gibson-- Part 3: Burial Site Unknown

Colonel Gibson was initially buried in Canada.  But his remains were later reburied at an unknown location..

The author of the article requests that if anyone has information on his whereabouts to please let him know.


Tuesday, December 18, 2018

Col. James Gibson-- Part 2: Mortally Wounded at Fort Erie, Canada

James Gibson graduated from the U.S. Military Academy in 1808.  After graduation, he was commissioned as a lieutenant in the Light Artillery Regiment.

Within just five years he reached the rank of colonel in the U.S. Army.  In early 1814, he was appointed commander of the newly formed 4th Rifle Regiment.

The following summer, he and his regiment participated in the defense of Fort Erie.  During an attack on the British artillery batteries bombarding the fort, he was mortally wounded and died of the wounds the next day.

In his honor, the fort on Ellis Island in New York Harbor was named Fort Gibson.


Colonel James Gibson-- Part 1

From Find-A-Grave.

Born June 1781 in Milford, Delaware.

Died 18 September 1814 at age 33 in Ontario, Canada.

Body lost or destroyed.


Friday, December 14, 2018

Fort Gibson-- Part 9: Second Fort at Site

The second fort was  constructed of stone and brick between 1807 and 1811 and was finished just as war broke out between the United Stares and Britain.

The fort was armed with around thirteen cannons and garrisoned with 182 soldiers.

It was also used by Union soldiers fifty years later during the Civil War.


Thursday, December 13, 2018

Fort Gibson-- Part 8: The Other Ellis Island Story of Two Forts

From HDdb.

To most people today, the name Ellis Island invokes thoughts of immigrants coming to a new land.

An area has been cleared off at Ellis Island revealing the remains of Fort Gibson.

Ir was one of the earliest forts built after the American Revolution to protect the new country and New York Harbor.  They were discovered during   the excavations for the American Immigrant Wall of Honor.  These evidence the nearly 100 years  when Ellis Island was used to ward off enemies rather than to welcome immigrants.

Two forts stood on this site.  The first was a crescent-shaped structure of wood and sod built in 1794 on the edge of what then was the island's shoreline.


Wednesday, December 12, 2018

Fort Gibson-- Part 7: Part of Those Triangles of Fire


The man mostly responsible for the defenses of New York Harbor, Colonel Jonathan Williams, was so sure his defense was near impregnable that he had this to say:

"It would be difficult to go into either the North or East River. without passing within point blank  shot ... of some of them ... it is not a very bold assertion to say that no ship that sails on the Ocean would engage on such terms."


Fort Gibson, NY-- Part 6: Two Triangles of Fire

From HMdb.

Fort Gibson, on Ellis Island in New York Harbor, was part  of two defensive triangles which made it virtually impossible for enemy ships (especially British) to approach New York City.

Any ship approaching would first have to pass through the crossfire between Fort Wood on today's Liberty Island, Fort Gibson on the west and from Castle Williams on Governors Island to the east.

In the unlikely event a ship or ships would get through that triangle it would face an even bigger challenge, passing through the second triangle formed by Ellis Island, Governors Island and the Battery of Lower Manhattan.

Within this second triangle, the farthest a ship could be at any time from the guns of one of these harbor defenses would be 1,000 yards.

No enemy ever attempted to penetrate this extraordinary  defense system.


Tuesday, December 11, 2018

Fort Gibson-- Part 5: Named After James Gibson

Colonel Jonathan Williams, a grandnephew of Benjamin Franklin, oversaw the construction of the brick and stone fortification.  Some of the remains of the fort are still there.

During the war, British prisoners were housed on Ellis Island, but since the British never made an attempt to take New York City, it saw no action.

In 1814, the fort was named for Colonel James Gibson, a 33-year-old officer killed at the Battle of Fort Erie during the War of 1812.


Monday, December 10, 2018

Fort Gibson, NY-- Part 4: Worsening Tensions Between the U.S. and Britain


Fort Gibson:  Oyster Banks to Batteries

The earliest fort at this site was built in 1794.  Britain's navy had begun seizing American merchant vessels and forcing sailors to serve on their warships.  (Impressment)  Congress decided that America's most important harbors should be defended in case of war.

Charles Vincent, a French engineer, was hired to construct defenses in New York Harbor.  He chose tiny Oyster Island (as Ellis Island was then called), known only for its ouster banks and shad fishing as the location of an eight-gun battery.

Tensions between Britain and the United States continued to worsen and in 1807, a British frigate attacked the frigate USS Chesapeake.  This led President Jefferson to further improve the nation's defenses and many of the earlier forts were rebuilt.


Fort Gibson-- Part 3: One of 40 U.S. Forts Built 1794-1812

From the HMdb.

Fort Gibson was one of 40 forts constructed between 1794 and 1812 in the United States.  All were built  during threats of war resulting from attacks in American shipping by Great Britain and France.

Many of the forts in the New York area were constructed in this period, including Castle Williams on Governors Island, Castle Clinton in lower Manhattan, and the star-shaped Fort Wood, which now forms the base of the Statue of Liberty.

Together these forts and batteries of the lower and upper harbor deterred attacks on one of the new nation's largest cities and most important ports.  Most of these historic fortifications still exist; some, such as Fort Wadsworth and Staten Island, are preserved by the National Park Service.


Sunday, December 9, 2018

Fort Gibson, N.Y. Harbor-- Part 2: Magazine to Immigration to Coast Guard

In 1861, Fort Gibson was dismantled and a naval magazine put in its place.  It was used as an ammunition depot during the Civil War.

In 1890, the Ellis Island and remains of Fort Gibson were selected for a new immigration station.  The munitions station was removed and the Immigration Station built.

A temporary Coast Guard training station was established there in 1939 and operated through 1946 in the Immigration Station part of the structure.  This was during World War II.


Friday, December 7, 2018

December 7, 1941, Pearl Harbor

Every year I write about Pearl Harbor on December 7.

From the November 29, 2018, Harrison Daily "Museum Musings:  Pearl Harbor survivor recalls the Day of Infamy" by Dave Holsted.

Unfortunately, the article never referred to him as anything other than Wade so I am not sure if that was his first or last name.  I also do not know if he is still alive.

Wade was on the USS Nevada that day and was tossed out of his bunk.  When he looked out the porthole he saw a plane with the Rising Sun on the underside of its wing and then he knew what was going on.

He had been a student at Bergen High School.  In August 1940 he enlisted in the U.S. Navy for six years and earned $21 a month.

Continued in today's Tattooed On Your Soul: World War II blog.


Thursday, December 6, 2018

George H.W. Bush: WW II Service to End of Combat Duty

Yesterday, I watched the removal of the coffin from the U.S. Capitol and the service held at the National Cathedral.  Today the burial took place at College Station, Texas, at his presidential library.

I am writing about his World War II service in each of my blogs today.

In November 1944, George Bush returned to the USS San Jacinto and participated in operations in the Philippines until his unit was replaced and sent home to the United States.  Through that time, he flew 58 missions for which he received the Distinguished Flying Cross, three Air Medals, and the Presidential Unit Citation awarded to the San Jacinto.


Illinois' 200th-- Part 3: The War of 1812

In September 1813, Americans built Fort  Clark in Peoria.  In June 1814,  William Clark built Fort Shelby  at Prairie du Chien in Wisconsin Territory.  This was the William Clark who was in the Lewis and Clark Expedition.

The British captured Fort Shelby in July and renamed it Fort McKay.  Two American attempts to recapture it were turned back at Rock Island Rapids and Credit Island, which I have written about before.  Click on the labels.  These were the final actions of the War of 1812 in this area.

Hostilities between Indians and Americans would continue, reigniting in the Winnebago War of 1827 and the Black Hawk War of 1832.

Five million acres of land in the Illinois Territory between the Illinois and Mississippi rivers, below Rock Island were set aside as the Military Tract of 1812 to pay soldiers land grants for their War of 1812 service.This is over one-eighth of the land in present-day Illinois and some of it was in Indian occupied area, causing many to side with Black Hawk in the forthcoming hostilities.


Monday, December 3, 2018

Illinois' 200th!!!!-- Part 2: Fort Dearborn Massacre and Peoria

The first major engagement in the war in the Illinois Territory took place at Fort Dearborn in present-day Chicago.  In August 1812, a force of Indians, primarily Potawatomis, attacked soldiers and civilians as they evacuated the fort in what is generally called the Fort Dearborn Massacre.

In October 1812, Americans launched and expedition against the Indian center in the Peoria area.  It wa sled by Governor Ninian Edwards and Colonel William Russell.  They attacked  and destroyed Potawatomi and Kickapoo villages, prompting the Indians to leave the area.

Raids between the two sides, however, continued.


Illinois' 200th!!!!!-- Part 1: The Illinois Territory During War of 1812

I'll be taking a few days' break to write about the bicentennial of Illinois becoming a state in 1818.

From Wikipedia.

During the War of 1812, the Illinois Territory was the scene of fighting between American settlers and soldiers and Indians.  At the time, the Illinois Territory consisted of modern Illinois and parts of Minnesota and Michigan.

Tensions between Americans and Indians had been increasing in the years before the war.  Present-day Peoria was the site of a major Indian concentration and the chief there was a big supporter of Shawnee Prophet Tenskwatawa and his brother Tecumseh.

There were few U.S. soldiers in the area which was the far frontier at the time.  Ninian Edwards, Illinois Territorial governor directed militia operations.


Sunday, December 2, 2018

Fort Gibson, New York Harbor-- Part 1: On Oyster Island/Ellis Island

From New York State Military Museum.

Fort Gibson, 1795, New York County, Ellis Island.

New York State acquired Oyster Island, by then known as Ellis Island, from the City of New York in 1794 Shortly thereafter  the War Department established a twenty-gun battery there as well as a magazine and barracks.

During the War of 1812 it did not see action since the British did not attack New York City.  However, it was used  as a garrison post and held POWs.


Friday, November 30, 2018

Fort Wood in New York Harbor

I have also written about Fort Wood in my Cooter's History Thing and Tattooed On Your Soul World War II blogs.

The first blog tells about the fort's role before and during World War I.  The second blog is about its role in World War II.

Click on My Blogs to the right of this to read more.


Forts Wood and Gibson, New York Harbor

From National Park Service.

These are forts that are located on Liberty (formerly Bedloe's Island) and Ellis Island.  Fort Wood still exists as the base of the Statue of Liberty, upon which the pedestal sits.  Fort Gibson protected Ellis Island which served for many years as the entry to the United States for hundreds of thousands of immigrants.

Bedloe's Island was a strategic spot in New York Harbor and a massive stone fort was constructed in 1807 and named for American Army engineer who died in the siege of Fort Erie in the War of 1812.  The remnants of the eleven-pointed star fort  are still visible today at the base of the Statue of Liberty.  The whole interior has been filled in though.

It was built to defend against a British attack which never came.

Fort Gibson was built on nearby Ellis Island in 1795, but renamed in honor of Colonel James Gibson who also died in the Siege of Fort Erie.

Only a portion of the foundation of the fort remains today.


Thursday, November 29, 2018

New York City's Fort Wood-- Part 1: Now At the Base of the Statue of Liberty

Today I wrote about the removal of the torch of the Statue of Liberty to a museum on Liberty Island in New York Harbor.  The base of the statue is the old Fort Wood which gives the base the pedestal sits on the many pointed star shape.

This is a fort dating to the War of 1812.

You can read about the torches removal in my Cooter's History Thing blog.  Just click on that site on the My Blogs area to the right of this.


Wednesday, November 28, 2018

Col. John Duvall-- Part 4: Resident of Scott County, Ky.

From Find-A-Grave.

DUVALL, COL. JOHN.  Scott County.   Died at his residence in Scott, 7 Sept.  1859, in his 77th year.

He was a citizen of Scott for 67 years and had represented that county in the Legislature, besides filling various other civil offices in it.

He commanded a company in the last  war with Britain and served in a campaign under General Harrison.

C,  23 Sept. 1859.


Monday, November 26, 2018

Col. John DuVall-- Part 3: Served Under Boswell and Willaims

From "Soldiers of the War of 1812, State of Kentucky; Roster of Volunteer Officers and Soldiers from Kentucky in the War of 1812-1815."

Roll of Captain John DuVall's Company, Boswell's Regiment, Kentucky Detached Militia."  The toll indicates that the regiment had  approximately sixty men.

Also, "Roll of Field and Staff, Williams Regiment, Kentucky Volunteers, of the War of 1812, and notes in organization and record of service, raised in pursuance of the address of 31st of July, of Isaac Shelby, Governor of Kentucky, and rendezvoused at Newport, Kentucky, August 31st, 1812 --  Commanded by Colonel William Williams.

It appears that DuVall served under both Boswell and Williams.

So, There You Have It.  --Brock-Perry

Friday, November 23, 2018

Col. John Duvall-- Part 2: His War of 1812 Service

From  by Walter Lynch.

Morris C. LeFever was inquiring about the roster of Captain John Pope Du Vall's 20th Infantry in Kentucky Militia War of 1812.  In particular, he wanted to know the kinship between DuVall, Stout, Jackson and some others.  Also, did the unit fight in Ohio?

Walter Lynch replied that he had found the name DuVall in two books on Kentucky soldiers in the War of 1812.  There was no reference to a 20th Infantry or battles the unit may have fought in.

From "Kentucky In the War of 1812" by Anderson Chenault Quisenberry.

"Boswell's Regiment, Kentucky Volunteer Light Infantry; 6th Company - Captain John DuVall;  Lieut., Richard Tyner; Ensign, James Stewart."

On another page he found:  "Captain John DuVall's company of Kentucky Detached  Militia, organized March 4, 1813.  Lieutenant William Brown;  Ensigns Richard Tyner and Daniel Johnson."

So, the rank of colonel came after 1813.


Col. John Duvall-- Part 1: At Fort Meigs and Dudley's Defeat

From Find-A-Grave.

Birth 14 March 1783, Culpeper County, Va.

Death 8 September 1859  Stamping Ground, Scott County, Ky.  Body lost or destroyed because of a tornado in 1974 destroyed cemeteries and homes.

Colonel John Duvall served in the War of 1812 as a captain in the Kentucky Militia.and a local political figure  and served a term in the Kentucky state legislature.

He fought in two major battles on the frontier: The Siege of Fort Meigs and Col. Dudley's Defeat.


Tuesday, November 20, 2018

Capt. Leslie Combs Report to Gen. Clay on Dudley's Defeat

Book title:  "Colonel William Dudley's Defeat Opposite Fort Meigs, May 5, 1813:  Official Report From Captain Leslie Combs To general Green Clay."  Originally printed 1869.

Amazon selling it for $12.76 paperback.

"This scarce antiquarian  book is a facsimile reprint of the original.  Due to its age, it may contain imperfections such as marks, notations, marginalia and flawed pages.

"Because we believe this work is culturally important, we have made it available as part of our commitment for protecting, preserving, and promoting the world's literature in affordable, high quality, modern editions that are true to the original work."

Since I have written about all three of these men in this blog, this should be an interesting read.  It is 16 pages long.


Monday, November 19, 2018

When Presidents Mislead U.S. Into War-- Part 1: Mr. Madison's War

From the November 16, 2018, Washington Post  "When presidents lied or misled the nation to go to war-- and when they didn't" by Matthew Dallek.

Review of book "Presidents of War" by  Michael Beschloss.

Researching about wars and presidents during the county's history.


During the War of 1812, President James Madison failed to level with the American people that fighting Britain would bring about serious sacrifices and that the United States was not under mortal threat.

Congress and the American public were divided over the war.

Mr. Madison "lowered the threshold so that future presidents and Congress could, contrary to the beliefs of the Founding Fathers, more easily enmesh the country in sundry conflicts for lesser purposes.


Sunday, November 18, 2018

Col. Wm. Dudley-- Part 4: "Dudley's Massacre"

Of the 800 Kentuckians who captured the British artillery, about 650 were killed, wounded or captured.  Only 150 were able to reach the safety of Fort Meigs.

Among the dead was Col. Dudley, who was killed in the first minutes of the fighting.

The battle became known as "Dudley's Massacre" or "Dudley's Defeat."

The event is commemorated by a plaque on the grounds of the Maumee Library in Maumee, Ohio.  This is not far from the site of the action.


Saturday, November 17, 2018

Col. William Dudley-- Part 3: The Slaughter At Fort Miami

The Indians drew the Kentuckians farther and farther into the forest. where they were eventually surrounded by the British and the Indians.  They had no recourse except to surrender.

They were marched downriver to the ruins of Fort Miami where the Indians began firing into the ranks of their prisoners, killing some of them.  They then began tomahawking prisoners and stealing their belongings.  Several British officers could be seen a distance away observing the massacre.  One of them was the British commander, Henry Procter.  They made no effort to stop it.

At least 30 Kentuckians were murdered before Indian leader Tecumseh arrived.   He drew his tomahawk and stood between the prisoners and their attackers.  The Indian leader caller Procter a woman for being afraid to end the slaughter of the helpless prisoners.  He said, "You are unfit to command.  Go put on petticoats."


Thursday, November 15, 2018

Col. William Dudley-- Part 2: Initial Success

General William Henry Harrison, at Fort Meigs, sent a courier to Gen. Green Clay ordering him to take the offensive against the British battery on the other side of the of the Maumee River to drive them away and spike their cannons.  General Clay ordered Col. Dudley to take 800 men and accomplish this task.

On the morning of May 5, Dudley made his assault on the battery and succeeded in capturing it.  After this initial success, things quickly fell apart.  The soldiers with the tools to spike the guns accidentally landed on the other side of the river..  Dudley's men, however, did have some success spiking them with bayonets and ramrods.

Then, the Kentuckians came under fire by Indians in the woods.  Determined to avenge their fellow soldiers who had been slaughtered at the River Raisin Massacre the previous year, they charged into the woods against their officers' orders.


Col. William Dudley-- Part 1: Commanded the 13th Kentucky Militia

Col. Dudley was under the command of Gen. Green Clay of Kentucky in the relief of Fort Meigs in Ohio in 1813.  Leslie Combs accompanied Dudley and was captured.

From Wikipedia.

Born 1766  Died May 5, 1813.

Colonel of the 13th Kentucky Militia during the War of 1812.  Born in Fredericksburg, Virginia.  As a young man, he sought his fortune west of the Appalachians, eventually settling in Fayette County, Kentucky.  He served as the local magistrate for several years.

In the spring of 1813, Dudley was under the command of General Green Clay of Kentucky, whose force numbered around 1200.  The force moved from Maumee River, Ohio, to Fort Meigs.  They arrived May 4 in the midst of the Siege of Fort Meigs.


Wednesday, November 14, 2018

George Trotter-- Part 3: At the Battle of the Thames

At the Battle of the Thames, George Trotter was in the Kentucky militia which was in the overall command of  Governor Isaac Shelby.

Colonel Trotter commanded the First Brigade which included the First and Second Infantry Regiments.  The First was Trotter;s command.  The Second was commanded by Col. John Donaldson.

They were in the First Division of Kentucky Militia which was commanded by Brigadier General William Henry.  (Not sure if this might have been William Henry Harrison.I have not been able to find a Brigadier general William Henry.)


Tuesday, November 13, 2018

George Trotter-- Part 2: The 42nd Kentucky's Drum

The 42nd Regiment was commanded by Col. George Trotter, who served in the  campaign as a Brigadier general  He was presented with a drum taken at the Battle of the Thames.  The drum was ornamented with the British coat of arms and the inscription "42nd Regiment."

It was presented the following year with the added inscription "Presented by General Harrison and  General Shelby to Colonel Trotter for the 42nd Regiment, Kentucky Militia, as testimony of it's patriotism and good conduct , for having furnished more volunteers than any other regiment."

I Wonder What Happened To It?  --Brock-Perry

George Trotter-- Part 1: With Campbell and At Battle of the Thames

Same source as previous two posts.

Margaret Trotter was the wife of General Leslie Combs.  Sge was the youngest daughter of George Trotter and she writes about her father.

George Trotter was born in Virginia in 1779 and died in Lexington, Kentucky, October  13, 1815.  He was the son of Lt. Col. James Trotter, a soldier in the American Revolution.

George Trotter entered the Army in 1812 during the War of 1812 as the captain of a volunteer company of  dragoons and was wounded in action with the Indians under Col. John B. Campbell on December 18 of that year.

He became a lieutenant colonel  of Kentucky  Volunteers in 1813 and led a brigade of the state with rank of brigadier general at the Battle of the Thames October 1813.


Monday, November 12, 2018

Leslie Combs War of 1812 Service and Afterwards-- Part 2

Afterwards, he "took a gallant part  in the disastrous defeat of Colonel William Dudley, on the 5th of May was wounded, taken prisoner and compelled to run the gauntlet at Fort Miami."

This was when Gen. Green Clay got to Fort Meigs and in an attempt to relieve the fort had part of his command under Col. William Dudley got involved in what is called Dudley's Massacre.

After the war,  he settled in Lexington, Kentucky, where he practiced law for half a century.

In 1838, General Combs raised a regiment for the Southwestern frontier at the time of the Texas Revolution.


Sunday, November 11, 2018

End of World War I and Veterans Day Today

One hundred years ago today, the Great War, World War I, ended with the signing of, and the going into effect of the Armistice.

It was the first of the modern wars with unbelievable losses on both the Allies and Central Powers alliances.

Ever since, Armistice Day has been commemorated.

Now, in the United States, though, it is called Veterans Day, a time to salute and thank our veterans who have made our lives possible.

Thank a Vet.

Saturday, November 10, 2018

"They Are Tough, Cocky, Sure Of Themselves" USMC

Captain Samuel Nicholas received orders to raise two battalions of Marines back in 1775.  Sadly, at the end of the American Revolution, both the Marines and Navy were disbanded.  Big mistake with enemies all around.

"The American Marines have it [pride], and benefit from it.  They are tough, cocky, sure of themselves and their buddies.  They can fight and they know it."

General Mark Clark, U.S. Army

What You Call Esprit de Corps.  --Brock-Perry

Friday, November 9, 2018

Leslie Combs War of 1812 Service-- Part 1: At River Raisin and Relief of Fort Meigs

Same Source as previous post.

During the War of 1812, Leslie Combs, age 19 "distinguished himself by his courage and gallantry.

In the campaign that ended  at the Raisin, he was sent by General Winchester with a dispatch to General Harrison and went through the wilderness through snow and water for 100 miles under conditions that almost cost him his life.

In 1813 he was commissioned as a Captain of Scouts and was attached to the force of General Green Clay, which had been ordered to the  relief of Fort Meigs.  Captain Combs "volunteered with the aid of an Indian guide and four men to carry news  of Clay's approach to General Harrison."

"He succeeded in threading his perilous way through the swamps of hostile savages and had arrived in sight  of the closely invested Fort, where he was attacked by Indians, one of his men killed , another wounded, he and the rest escaped back to Fort Defiance."


Leslie Combs War of 1812 Pension

From Combs Families Organization

On or About the  21 day of November 1865  The State House in Frankfort and the Clerks Office of the Court of Appeals was Consumed  by fire with all its Contents including said Pension  Certificate and other  papers of said Leslie Combs.

Combs was in the Kentucky Militia in the regiment commanded by Colonel William the service of the United States and his name placed on the Pension Roll of Kentucky.


Leslie Combs of Kentucky-- Part 3: Wounded Again and Captured

After two days, he returned to Fort Defiance to tell Green Clay that Fort Meigs needed his help.  But, he found General Clay already beginning preparations for Fort Meigs' relief.

Leslie Combs had been badly wounded in the ambush, though, and was ordered to bed by medical personnel.  However, he found there were two  small companies of spies  ready to operate under his command.

He left his sick bed and took command and joined Clay's march.

He was wounded and taken prisoner on May 5, 1813.

After his release and parole, he discontinued his military career and became a lawyer and politician.  He was a strong Unionist during the Civil War.


Thursday, November 8, 2018

Leslie Combs of Kentucky-- Part 2: Fort Meigs Besieged

He was born in Clark County, Kentucky in 1793, the youngest of 12 children of Benjamin Combs and officer in the Continental Army during the American Revolution.

At the outbreak of the War of 1812, Combs enlisted in the First Regiment Kentucky Volunteers under general William Henry Harrison, but was soon transferred to the command of Green Clay.  By April 1813, he was the captain of a scouting group.

On the evening of May 1, 1813,  Combs and a six-man detachment was  dispatched by Colonel William Dudley from Fort Defiance (present-day Defiance, Ohio)  to the besieged Fort Meigs.  As they canoed down the Maumee River, they were ambushed by Potawatomi, and two of Combs' men were killed.

The remaining men of Combs' force returned to Fort Defiance to say that Fort Meigs  was under siege and in need of aid.


Wednesday, November 7, 2018

Leslie Combs of Kentucky-- Part 1: Politician and Soldier

Another man who was at the 1872 Reunion of War of 1812 veterans in Kentucky was Leslie Combs.  He was 78 at the time.

From Wikipedia.


November 28, 1793 to August 22, 1881

Was a lawyer and politician from Kentucky.  He served under General William Henry Harrison during the War of 1812 and was captured in 1813.  After his release, he studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1818.  He served in the Kentucky House of Representatives for many different terms.


Saturday, November 3, 2018

Green Clay's Family-- Part 2: Clement Comer Clay, Governor of Alabama

From Find-A-Grave

A cousin of Green Clay.

December 17, 1789 to September 6, 1866.

Eighth governor of Alabama.  Also attorney, politician, Alabama legislator and U.S. House of Representatives and Senate.

Born in Virginia.

Served under General Andrew Jackson battling the Creek Indians during the War of 1812.  This is also known as the Creek War 1813-1814.

While governor (1835-1837), his administration's term was dominated by the Creek War of 1836, arising from their resistance to Indian Removal.  During his time in office, the U.S. Army  removed the Creek Indians from southeastern Alabama under the terms of the 1832 Treaty of  Cusseta.

The Creeks were relocated to Indian Territory, now Oklahoma.


Thursday, November 1, 2018

Green Clay's Family: Henry Clay Was a Cousin

From Wikipedia.

Without a doubt, the most famous relative of Green Clay was a cousin by the name of Henry Clay.

April 12, 1777 to June 29, 1852

American lawyer, planter and statesman.  Represented Kentucky in both the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate.  Created the Whig Party.

As Speaker of the House in Washington, D.C., Henry Clay was a leading War Hawk and helped lead Congress into the declaration of war against Britain in 1812.

In 1814, he helped  negotiate the Treaty of Ghent.

He was very powerful throughout the first half of the 19th century and had a lot to do with any and all U.S. government decisions, including the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850.


Tuesday, October 30, 2018

USS Constitution Celebrates 221st Birthday

From the October 20, 2018, 7 News Boston.

This was celebrated Saturday, October 20 in honor of the USS Constitution's 221st birthday on October 21, 1797.

It is the world's oldest commissioned warship.

The event also celebrates the birthday of the U.S. Navy on October 13, 1776 and the launching of the destroyer USS Cassin Young on December 31, 1943.  It is also at the Charleston Navy Yard along with the USS Constitution.

Naval drills, rope and knot-making will be demonstrated and there will be a scavenger hunt..

The crew of the USS Constitution are all current active duty U.S. Navy sailors.

--Brock- perry

Monday, October 29, 2018

Green Clay's Children: Sons Brutus Junius Clay and Cassius Marcellus Clay


Farmer, cattle breeder, Kentucky state legislature, U.S. Congressman.

!862 elected as a Unionist to U.S. Congress.  Held seat from 1863-1865 and was chairman of the Agriculture Committee.  Returned to farming.

Older brother of Union Army Major General Cassius Marcellus Clay.

One of his sons, Green Clay, was a colonel in the U.S. Army's 3rd Kentucky Cavalry 1862-1865.  Another son, Exekiel Field Clay was lieutenant colonel of the 3rd Battalion Kentucky Mounted Rifles, was wounded and lost an eye, captured, held at Johnson's Island, Ohio until January 1865.  After war was a horse breeder.  His horses won the Kentucky Derby twice.


Abolitionist,  Freed slaves he inherited from his father.  Civil War U.S. minister to Russia.  Also appointed major general by Lincoln.Influential in negotiations to purchase Alaska.

An Influential Family.  --Brock-Perry

Friday, October 26, 2018

Green Clay of Kentucky: First-Born Daughter, Husband and Grandchild

From Find-A-Grave.

Green Clay's first-born was ELIZABETH LEWIS CLAY SMITH  who married John Speed Smith, another important person in Kentucky history. (1798-1887)

JOHN SPEED SMITH:--  U.S. Congressman, lawyer.  (1792-1854) During the War of 1812 he enlisted in the U.S. Army and became a colonel.  Served as aide-de-camp for General William Henry Harrison, later U.S. president.

During the rest of his career he, at various times was  a Kentucky State House of Representatives member, Kentucky senate and U.S. Congress.  Also U.S. District Attorney for Kentucky.

GREEN CLAY SMITH--  Son of Elizabeth and John Speed Smith.  (1826-1895)  Union brigadier general and U.S. Congressman from Kentucky.  Lieutenant in Mexican War.

In Civil War, colonel of 4th Kentucky Cavalry.  Promoted to brigadier general July 1862.  Resigned March 1863 and elected to U.S. Congress.  Later served as governor of Montana Territory.


Thursday, October 25, 2018

Green Clay of Kentucky: Another Brother and Two Sisters

MATTHEW CLAY  brother.  U.S. Congressman.  American Revolution soldier in Ninth Virginia Regiment and later the First and Fifth.  First Lieutenant, Captain and Quartermaster.  U.S. Congressman from Virginia.

His sister ELIZABETH MARVEL CLAY MURRAY  married Alexander Murray who fought on the British side as a Loyalist during the Revolution as a member of the Queen's Rangers.  He died in 1789 and was buried in Halifax, Canada.

Another sister LUCY GREEN CLAY THAXTON married William Thaxton who was a private in the Virginia Line during the American Revolution.

Definitely A Family Tied to the American Revolution.  --Brock-Perry

Wednesday, October 24, 2018

Green Clay of Kentucky: His Brothers Henry and Thomas

From Find-A-Grave.

Born 14 August 1757 Powhatan County, Virginia.  Died  31 October 1828  (aged 71) Madison County, Kentucky.

Buried White Hall Family Cemetery in Richmond (Madison County) Kentucky.

I have not been able to find any more information about this cemetery.

One of Green Clay's brothers was HENRY CLAY, who was a private in the American Revolution and killed at Trenton 20 December 1776.

Another brother was THOMAS CLAY, a captain in the Continental Army in the American Revolution.  He received a land warrant of 4,000 acres for his three year's service and moved to Kentucky with Green Clay and was on the state constitutional conventions,  and member of both the Kentucky House of Representatives and Senate.


Tuesday, October 23, 2018

Brig. Gen. Green Clay-- Part 3: Defender of Fort Meigs, Wealthiest Man in Kentucky

When the British gave up their siege of Fort Meigs, Clay was left in command of the fort.  He was still commanding when the British returned  in July 1813. Tecumseh was again with them.

In an attempt to lure Green Clay and his troops out of Fort Meigs, the Indians staged a mock battle, appearing to ambush a column of American reinforcements.

Clay was not fooled as he knew no reinforcements were coming.  He was able to hold out in Fort Meigs until the British again gave up their siege and retreated.

After the war, Clay returned to his plantation  where he spent the rest of his life directing his slaves in cultivating tobacco and hemp.

He is thought to have been the wealthiest man in Kentucky at this time.  He died at his home in 1828 at the age of 73 and was buried with Masonic Rites at White Hall Family Cemetery in Richmond, Kentucky.

Clay County, Kentucky, is named for him.


Monday, October 22, 2018

Brig. Gen. Green Clay of Kentucky-- Part 2: Commanded Kentucky Militia

Green Clay developed and owned several distilleries and a tavern  in central Kentucky near Lexington.  He also owned several ferries across the Kentucky River.

In 1789, he was elected as Kentucky representative to the Virginia House of Delegates (Kentucky at the time was still a territory of Virginia).  Later he was elected representative and senator to the Kentucky General Assembly.

During the War of 1812, he was commissioned as a general in the Kentucky militia.  In the spring of 1813, he was ordered to the aid of General William Henry Harrison who was besieged at Fort Meigs, Ohio.  Clay fought his way into the fort, but many of his men were taken prisoner by Tecumseh after capturing a battery of British artillery.


Brig. Gen. Green Clay of Kentucky-- Part 1: American Revolution and War of 1812

His name was mentioned in connection with Fort Meigs in Ohio at the 1873 Reunion.

From Wikipedia.

August 14, 1757 to October 31, 1828.

Was an American businessman, planter and politician from Kentucky.  He served in the American Revolution and was commissioned a general in the Kentucky militia in the War of 1812.  At one time he was believed to be the wealthiest man in the state, owning tens of thousands of acres of land, many slaves, several distilleries, a tavern and ferries.

He was born in Virginia and served in the Continental Army during the American Revolution.  Afterwards he joined the westward migration into Kentucky where he became a surveyor.  He used this to acquire land.

He was a cousin of U.S. Congressman  and statesman Henry Clay and  Alabama governor Clement Comer Clay.


Saturday, October 20, 2018

No Photograph This Time

A photograph was taken of the 1871 reunion of War of 1812 / River Raisin veterans, but none in 1872.  Too bad.

Here's what the source I have been using most of the month had to say about it:

"Preparations had been made for taking in groups the veterans and prisoners, and they were assembled on the porticoes  of the seminary for that purpose.  But the daguerrean artist failed to meet his appointment promptly, and their patience being exhausted they dispersed; hence the failure to secure pictures."

Bet the Photographer Wasn't Hired in the Future.  --Brock-Perry

Another Feast and a Fireworks Problem

The Monroe Knights Templar also put on a huge banquet for the veterans and attendees.  "Their tables were spread with every luxury, and their guests were feasted, toasted and made merry to an entirely satisfactory degree.

"A quantity of fireworks were provided, to be sent off  in the grove in the evening, but owing to an untoward accident the most and best of them were destroyed.  In sending off a revolving rocket, it discharged directly into  the box containing the best pieces, and these were prematurely discharged and destroyed.

"It was great wonder that the accident did not result in serious damage to those who were engaged in sending off the fireworks, but luckily."

A Close Call.  --Brock-Perry

Thursday, October 18, 2018

Toasting the War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 5: Sackett's Harbor, Liberty and Foreign=Born Citizens

14.  "Sackett's Harbor"      One of the turning points of 1812.  --Response by General Joseph W. Brown, of Detroit.

15.  "Civil and Religious Liberty"  --Response by Dr. Curtis, of Cincinnati.

16.  "Our Foreign-Born Citizens"  --Response by  ex-Mayor Kraus, of Toledo.

Hopefully they were just taking a sip instead of a gulp during these.


Wednesday, October 17, 2018

Toasting the War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 4:The Press, the Army and The Knights Templar

11.  "The American Press"   Independent, enterprising and intelligent, it distributes knowledge and the spirit of freedom throughout the length and breath of the land, affording the best evidence and  guarantee of her institutions.  --Response by C. Waggoner, of the Toledo Commercial.

12.  "Our Regular Army"  Though small in number yet imminent in services, gallant in spirit, the educated intelligence that guides and instructs the patriotic  zeal of a nation in its defense.  --Response by General Custer.

13.  "The Sir Knight of the Order of the Knights Templar"   The light shineth in darkness, and the darkness  comprehendeth  it not.  --Response by  Dr. A.I. Sawyer, of Monroe.


Tuesday, October 16, 2018

Toasting the War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 3: Michigan, Detroit and Our Country

Of course, the tables were "liberally supplied with pure native wines" after the banquet, so these toasts went on for awhile.

8.  "Michigan"  --No less eminent for her commerce, agricultural and mineral resources than for her intelligent and liberal system of  education and public charities.  Response by Governor  Baldwin of Detroit.

9.  "Detroit"  --The oldest city in the Northwest;  an honor to the State for her intelligence and sterling worth and her connection with pioneer history of the lakes, especially the River Raisin.   Response by  Hon. Levi Bishop, who read his poem entitles "Battle of the River Raisin."

10.  "No North, no South, no Atlantic, no Pacific nor Western States, But our country, our whole country and nothing but our country; would that she  were ever right; but right or wrong, our country, scared, tangible and unprofaned forever."  --Response by Chief Justice Campbell, of  the Supreme Court of Michigan.

Covering It All.  --Brock-Perry

Monday, October 15, 2018

Toasting the War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 2: To River Raisin, Kentucky and Ohio

5."The Brave Men Who Perished In The Massacre at the River Raisin in 1813"    They still live in our hearts.  Let us erect a monument to their memory, that they may live in the hearts of our children's children.  They made the city of Monroe memorable in history by their devotion to their country.  --Response by Hon. C.C. Trowbridge of Detroit.

6.  "Old Kentucky"  Once the dark and bloody battle ground, whose heroes fell alike at Tippecanoe,  the River Raisin, Fort Meigs,  the Thames and at New Orleans; always the same and good and brave . Kentucky.   --Response by Hon. W.P.  Thomason of Kentucky.

7.  "Ohio"  The eldest of the galaxy of the Northwest; bright as ever; may her luster never  die.  --Response by Mayor Jones of Toledo.

There are two monuments to the battle and massacre.


Toasting the War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 1: To Washington, 1776 and Veterans

After all the speeches, most very flowery and after the huge banquet, the wine was passed around at the 1872 War of 1812 Reunion in Monroe, Michigan, and toasts were made.

Every toast also featured a response.

1.  "The Day We Celebrate"  --Response  by J.J. Adams of Lenawee,

2.   "Washington"  --  The  world honors the man who conquered his own  ambition to give freedom to the continent.  --Response by Judge Patchin of Detroit.

3.  The Statesmen and Heroes of 1776"  The founders of a system of government that makes ours a powerful continental Republic for the good of the world., if in our political advice we imitate their integrity.   --Response by B.G. Morton of Monroe.

4.  "The Veterans of 1812"  Their march to victory was not by Pullman palace cars, but through the dense forests, dragging their cannons with weary marches; yet they conquered at Tippecanoe, Fort Meigs, and the Thames, and said to the world at Lake Erie, "We have met the enemy and they are ours."    --Response by General Leslie Combs, of Kentucky.

And, They Aren't Through Yet With the Toasts.  --Brock-Perry

1872 Reunion-- Part 19: Banquet and Toasts

After the orations were given and "The Star-Spangled Banner" was sun  "The veterans and the guests were escorted to the tables, which were bountifully loaded with all the substantials and delicacies which heart could wish, provided by the ladies of this city, and guests were waited upon with every attention by the young ladies,  until the wants of the inner man were fully supplied.

After the  substantials of the feast had been partaken of by about 1,500 people, the tables were liberally supplied with pure native wines of Monroe manufacture, supplied by the Point de  Pean Wine Co., and the regular toasts were offered and responded as follows:  ...."

Next Post.  --Brock-Perry

Saturday, October 13, 2018

1872 Reunion-- Part 18: Still Honoring the River Raisin Dead

The mayor continued talking to the men of Kentucky:

"Beside you  are the noble band of pioneers whose strong will and sturdy hands have caused this wilderness to blossom  into such rich profusion, and they from their hearts do welcome you.  And so as they and all of us in our daily round of life-cares, duties and memories, think of the past and  and of you we remember that the battle cry of Kentucky and Ohio, under Green Clay at Fort Meigs, the gallant Croghan at Sanduskey. Harrison at the Thames, Jackson at New Orleans and in every field was Remember the River Raisin.

"We, of Monroe,  all honor to him whose patriotic heart and liberal hand gave impulse, have caught up the slogan of your youth and day: we will remember the River Raisin and have resolved in your presence, over the graves of  fallen braves,  to pledge that veneration for your toils and sacrifices still lives with us,  that gratitude to you and all the fathers of the Republic is as strong, quick and deep a sentiment with us as with our fathers.

"And so remembering the River Raisin, and you and your dead in our care and keeping, we will build a monument."

Quite the Flowery Speech.  --Brock-Perry

Friday, October 12, 2018

1872 Reunion-- Part 17: Welcome Kentuckians!!

"Welcome to you of Kentucky, who in our day and youth, baptized as the 'dark and bloody ground,' from savage cruelty....  Welcome and thank God that you are permitted to pass over the river of the Ohio no longer a vexed and fettered  boundary of the institutions social, domestic, or municipal antagonistic to Christianity, and that where you encountered in your early march the wild forest and still wilder savage, flourishing towns and cities and fruitful fields delight to meet and welcome you.

"The lonely line of the Hull Road is to-day a great highway of travel and one succession of fertile farms.  The seat of Winchester's camp is there before you; behold its spires, its towers, its broad fields and busy life.All around you in earnest devotion behold its generous people."

The mayor was talking about slavery, Indians and Winchester's camp was Monroe, Michigan.


Thursday, October 11, 2018

1872 Reunion-- Part 16: "Those 300 Victims of Slaughter

The mayor continued:

"And this celebration and this welcome and these facts  are due to the memory of those brave men who fought, and to the memory of their brave comrades who left their bones on the Miami, Raisin and the Thames [rivers].

"From these graves and fields and from the graves of those 300  victims of the slaughter come a sad and solemn welcome to  those old  companions and comrades."


Tuesday, October 9, 2018

1872 Reunion-- Part 15: The Mayor Welcomes the Assemblage

Monroe's Mayor Redfield gave a welcoming speech:

"The uncompleted history of that scene and of those days welcomes you to this place and demands its vindication through you today in this, that the war was carried on and the Federal Government supported by volunteers alone, from June 1812, to October 1814; and that in all that time  the only assistance we had upon this frontier was from Ohio, Kentucky and other Southern States, while Northern and Eastern states held back from the contest, even until after this and the New York frontier had been desolated and laid waste, and the capital of the Nation was sacked and burned."

A real shot at the northern and eastern states.

He received a lot of applause and cheering after these words.


1872 Reunion Attendees-- Part 14: Hayes to Jameson

These were added on at the end of the list and out of order.

Hayes, D.S., 72
Helwig, Daniel, 82
Hixson,W.D., 91

Holly, Jesse, 72
Hudnut, B.P., 78
Ivor, Charles, 72

Jacobs, Louis, 97
Jameson, John, 70


Monday, October 8, 2018

1872 Reunion Attendees-- Part 13: Whelpley to Younglove

Whelpley, Thos., 97
Williams, Elisha, 86
Williams, Sam, L., 91

Younglove, Geo., 79
Younglove, Jas., 74


Saturday, October 6, 2018

1872 Reunion Attendees-- Part 12: Shearer to Webster

Shearer, Jona., 70
Suane, Lewis, 89
Talbot, Oliver, 79

Thomasson, J.P., 74
Van Aiken, Simon, 82
Vance, Joseph, 84

Vanderwalker, Jas., 82
Van Pelt, David, 91
Verkies, Joseph, 82

Walters, W., 78
Warren, Edward, 79
Webster, Larkon, 80


1872 Reunion Attendees-- Part 11: Penwick to Shapine

Penwick, James, 78
Postwood, John, 84
Puller, B.J., 81

Quinsberry, Roger, 79
Reid, J.C., 75
Ressenet, R.C., 79

Rogers, J.R., 80
Root, John, 78
Rowell, O., 77

Santour, Francis, 76
Shafer, William, 89
Shapine, George, 84


1872 Reunion Attendees-- Part 10: Mevay to Pendleton

Mevay, Solomon, 70
Martin, John, 75
Mason, Henry, 80

Mount, Thos., 78
Moyer, N., 77
Mulhollen, John, 75

Nadeau, J.B., 77
Navarre, Alex, 82
Nedmore, Perry, 82

Parker, J.C., 77
Pasko, A.A., 78
Pendleton, Edward, 84


Friday, October 5, 2018

1872 Reunion Attendees-- Part 9: Jones to McLean

Jones, Thomas, 80
Kitk, James, 83
Kolfuus, J.W., 77

Laforge, John B., 76
Lewis, Shubool, 70
Lindsley, Thos, 83

Locke, W.R., 79
Love, James Y., 74
McChesney, David, 79

McDowell, J.C., 78
McGoodwin, J.C., 80
McLean, John B., 77


Thursday, October 4, 2018

1872 Reunion-- Part 8: Attendees: Gebhart to Johnson

The war had been over for 58 or 59 years, depending upon if you mark its end with the Treaty of Ghent or after the Battle of New Orleans or later actions in 1815.

These are War of 1812 veterans attending the 1872 reunion in Monroe, Michigan and their ages in 1872.

Gebhart, John, 78
Gibson, Matthew, 83
Gofttney, Robert S., 82

Goodright, Michael, 78
Goodwin, J.K., 80
Grant, L.V., 77

Guyor, Joseph, 85
Hall, C., 77
Hall, Joseph, 88

Hamilton, William, 80
Harvey, James, 80
Johnson, Moore, 77


1872 Reunion-- Part 7: Attendees Davis to Garnarke

Davis, W.B., 81
Deland Hall, 71
Dowese, Samuel, 80

Drayor, W.L., 82
Duncan, Jere., 80
Eddlerman, Aaron, 81

Ewalt, Joseph,81
Foulke, Joseph, 83
French, Brown, 83

Fultzan, Isaac C., 74
Gaither, Henry, 82
Garnarke, Simeon, 82


1872 Reunion-- Part 6: More Attendees Burns to Davis

Burns, Andrew, 77
Carrick, Eobert, 77
Clapper, John, 77

Clusin, Jas., 85
Conseign, A.O., 82
Combs, Leslie, 78

Correy, Jas., 75
Craddock, J.G., 84
Crawford, Alex, 81

Crawford, A.B., 82
Curtis, Alva, 71
Curtis, Dr., 78

Davis, Henry, 82
Davis, H.M., 79
Davis, Thos. A., 83


Wednesday, October 3, 2018

1872 Reunion--Part 5: War of 1812 Veterans Attending, Armstrong to Bortine

Veteran and Age:

Armstrong, Jas. R., 85
Armstrong, S.J., 84
Ball, Lewis, 79

Barrett, Jos. C., 78
Baute, Peter, 81
Beat, Leonard, 95

Beach, Lewis, 79
Benson, B.W., 75
Beseau, Jphn B., 81

Bisnett, Joseph, 79
Bittinger, Henry, 78
Blnchard, S., 77

Bolivar, Thos., 76
Boroff, Fred, 101
Bortine, Benson L., 79


Tuesday, October 2, 2018

1872 War of 1812 Reunion-- Part 4: A Shower of Bouquets Fell Everywhere

As the procession reached the Monroe street cemetery, where the Kentuckians who fell at the battle of the River Raisin are buried, it halted, the bands played a dirge, the flags were drooped, the military came to "shoulder arms,"  the Knights Templar made the "salute" of their order, and the veterans and civilians generally uncovered.

The grandstand was erected with the timbers, planks and boards from the recent residence of Dr. A.I. Sawyer, which was the building that General Winchester had his headquarters at the time of the celebrated battle and massacre of the Raisin, January 1813.

The Hon. Warner Wing, President of the Day, opened the ceremonies with a welcome.

General Custer called the roll of veterans and each rose from his sear as his name was called  When the name of Frederick Boroff was called, who resided in Bedford, Monroe County, and his age announced, (101 years and 6 months) calls were made from all parts of the crowd that he should show himself; and as the old veteran, comparatively smart, climbed upon his seat, three hearty cheers were given him, and a shower of bouquets began to fall around and among the veterans, and on the speakers platform, from the ladies of the orchestra, until it seemed that the veteran soldiers were fairly covered in flowers.


1872 War of 1812 Reunion-- Part 3: A Fine Proceeding

This took place in Monroe, Michigan.

The weather July 4, 1872 was perfect for the proceedings.  There was a 38-gun salute at sunrise and a gun fired every five minutes during the procession.

A large stand with sears had been erected, suitable to hold 1000 persons.

Arches had been made.  One read:  "Welcome Brave Defenders" and another "Welcome, Veterans."  All streets along the precession were also heavily decorated.  National flags were everywhere.

Trains from the north (Detroit" brought dignitaries including the National Guards of Detroit and the state governor.

The procession began after 11:00 a.m..

Monday, October 1, 2018

1872 River Raisin Reunion-- Part 2: 121 War of 1812 Veterans Attended

The 1871 reunion of the River Raisin survivors went so well, it was determined to have one on July 4, 1872.  On July 4, 1872, 121 survivors of Harrison's Army, serving at Fort Meigs and elsewhere responded in person to the invitation to come to Monroe, Michigan.

A grand review of the survivors of the War of 1812 was planned.  A large crows was expected.  A large delegation of Tennessee and Ohio survivors, 75 in number, arrived July 3.

They were accompanied by general George A. Armstrong, one of the Committee of Invitation and they first went to Toledo.

They were met at the station by the Monroe Band

Among them was General Leslie Coombs of Kentucky, 78, General Samuel Williams of Kentucky who played a huge role in the War of 1812, age 91, and Henry Gaither, of Cincinnati, age 82.


Friday, September 28, 2018

1872 River Raisin Survivors Reunion-- Part 1: Was George Custer At This One As Well?

From the "Custer in Photographs" book by D. Mark Katz.

Evidently, there were no photographs taken at the 1872 Reunion as there had been at the one in 1871 as the book did not have one in it.

However, in the back of the book is a very full Custer Chronology, which for July 4, 1872, says that Custer attended the reunion of the veterans of the War of 1812 in Monroe, Michigan.

He Be There.  --Brock-Perry

Thursday, September 27, 2018

River Raisin Survivors 1871 Reunion-- Part 5: Plans for the 1872 Reunion

Peter and Robert Navarre continued to reside in the area until their deaths.  Frank Boroff, the centenarian, was born in Pennsylvania in 1770.  The united ages of the group were 1,168 years, an average of nearly 90 years.

"The pleasure derived  at this assembly  gave rise to extensive preparations for welcoming to the old battle grounds the survivors of the War of 1812."  The date chosen was July 4, 1872.

An amazing number of the old veterans from Harrison's army, serving at Fort Meigs and elsewhere in this section during the War of 1812, 121, responded in person to the invitations.


Wednesday, September 26, 2018

River Raisin Survivors 1871 Reunion-- Part 4: Attendees

Louis Jacobs, 96
Henry Mason, 79
James B. Nadeau, 77

Peter Navarre, 82
Robert F. Navarre, 81
Joseph Poulke, 80

George Younglove, 77
David Van Pelt, 89
William Walters, 88

Thomas Whelpley,  73


Tuesday, September 25, 2018

River Raisin Survivors 1871 Reunion-- Part 3: In Attendance

These were those in attendance, followed by their age:

John Beseau, 80
Francis Lazarre, , 82
John Clapper, 76

Jean DeChovin, 77
Hall Deland, 75
Bronson French, 82

Joseph Guyor  The man who organized it and held it at his place.
Charles Hixon, 76
F. Boraff, age 100 yrs, 7 months


Monday, September 24, 2018

River Raisin Veterans 1871 Reunion-- Part 2: Another Reunion in 1872

The occasion was so thoroughly enjoyed by the guests that  a suggestion was made and cordially received that ample preparations for the 60th anniversary of the Battle of the River Raisin should be made the following year (1872), and that general invitations should be extended bu correspondence and published notices in the newspapers of Ohio, Kentucky and Tennessee, to all the survivors of the Battle of the River Raisin.

It was afterwards determined, as the anniversary would occur at such an inclement of the year (January) that few of the old survivors could attend  from such a distance, to hold a convention on the following 4th of July, 1872.

--Quite a Reunion.  --Brock-Perry

The 1871 Gathering of War of 1812 Veterans in Monroe, Michigan-- Part 1

From Geneaology Trails, Monroe County, Michigan, Military.

*History of the War of 1812*  By Talcott E. Wing, Editor New York Munsell & Company, publishers. 1890.   Submitted by Veneta McKinney.

In early June 1871, a notice appeared in the Monroe City papers of an invitation for War of 1812 veterans from the Battle of the River Raisin to assemble at the residence of Joseph Guyor on what was known as Guyor's Island,

On June 15, nineteen survivors of the battle attended along with prominent citizens of Monroe.

A banquet was prepared for the old heroes and a cordial welcome was tendered by the Honorable Herman J. Redfield, mayor of Monroe.  This was followed by addresses by General George A. Custer, Col.  I.R. Grosven, Col. Lucas and others.

The afternoon was pleasantly passed recounting memories of the war as well as anecdotes of a local character.

A copy of the photograph taken of the gathering was also included.


Sunday, September 23, 2018

June 25, 1876, a Particularly Bad Day for the Custer Clan

As long as I am on the subject, a large number of Emmanuel Henry Custer's family died on June 25, 1876, out at the Battle of the Little Big Horn.

George Armstrong Custer  (December 5, 1839-June 25, 1876, age 36)  For the location of these two burials, see the preceding blog entry.

Thomas Ward Custer  (March 15, 1845-June 25, 1876, age 31)

Boston Custer  (October 31, 1848-June 25, 1876, age 27)  Buried Woodland Cemetery, Monroe, Michigan.

James Calhoun  (August 24, 1845-June 25, 1876, age 30)  Married to Emanuel's daughter Margaret Emma Custer Calhoun.  Buried Fort Leavenworth National Cemetery, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

Harry Armstrong "Autie" Reed  (April 27, 1858-June 25, 1876, age 18)  Buried Woodland Cemetery, Monroe, Wisconsin.

That had to be a hard time in Monroe, Michigan, when the family found out about the battle.

Poor Emanuel Custer.  --Brock-Perry

Where George and Tom Custer Are Buried

As long as I am on burials, two other of the Custer boys are buried elsewhere from Woodland Cemetery.

Thomas Ward Custer, younger brother of George Custer is buried at the Fort Leavenworth National Cemetery at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.  His gravestone says he was awarded two Medals of Honor during the Civil War and he died with his brother at the Battle of the Little Big Horn.

George Armstrong Custer was killed at the Battle  of the Little Big Horn and his body initially buried in a shallow grave on the site.  A year later, he was dug up and reburied with full military honors at the West Point Cemetery on October  10, 1877.


Custer and the Civil War, His Confederate Friend and George Washington

Besides in this blog, with George Custer's connection to the War of 1812, I have been writing about George Custer in the Civil War, primarily at this point on his running into a friend of his from his USMA at West Point, Lt. James Worrell Washington during the war.

Only, his friend was now in the Confederate Army.  And now, a Union prisoner after the Battle of Seven Pines.  A picture was taken of the two friends, now adversaries.

You can find out about this "reunion" as well as its connection to John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry and the George Washington relics at my Saw the Elephant Civil war blog.

Click on the My Blogs slot to the right of this.


Woodland Cemetery in Monroe, Michigan: Famous Burials

From Find-A-Grave.

George Armstrong Custer's father, Emanuel Henry Custer is buried in this cemetery.  Other persons of note buried there:

Several U.S. and Michigan legislators including Isaac Peckham Christiancy, David Noble, Edwin Willits and Austin Wing.

Civil War:

Col. George W. Spalding, 12th Tennessee Cavalry
Brevet Brig. General , US Regular Army Joseph Rowe Smith, Sr.

Also, from the Civil War:

Boston Custer, son of Emanuel Henry Custer and brother of George Armstrong Custer.  Killed at the Battle of the Little Big Horn.

Also died at Battle of Little Big Horn:

Harry Armstrong "Autie" Reed, nephew of George Armstrong Custer and Boston Custer.  Killed at the Battle of the Little Big Horn.


Saturday, September 22, 2018

Emanuel Henry Custer: George A. Custer's Father

In the last post, I mentioned that one of the War of 1812 veterans in the 1871 photograph with Lt.Col. Custer was an Emmanuel Custer.  I wondered whether he might be a relative of Custer.

He was.

Emanual, spelled with one "m" was George A. Custer's father.

From Find-A-Grave.

Born 10 December 1806 in Cresaptown , Maryland  (It is doubtful then, at ages 6 to 9,  that he was War of 1812 veteran.)

Death 29 November 1892 in Monroe, Michigan.

Buried in Woodland Cemetery in Monroe, Michigan.


Thursday, September 20, 2018

Lt.Col. Custer and War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 5: The Front Tow

Age is shown after the name.  The photograph is dated July 4, 1871.

Peter Navarre, 82
James B. Nadeau, 77
Emmanual Custer,

Robert F. Navarre, 80
Joseph Foulke, 80
Bronson French, 82

I wonder if Emmanuel Custer was a relation of George A. Custer?


Lt.Col. Custer and War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 4: The Men In the Photo

CENTER ROW (from left with ages):

John B. Beaseau, 80
George Younglove, 77
Fred Boroff, 100, 7 months

David Van Pelt, 89
Louis Jacobs, 96
Charles Hixon, 76

Henry Mason, 79
Thomas Whelpley, 73
Joseph Guyor, 88


Wednesday, September 19, 2018

Lt. Colonel Custer and the War of 1812-- Part 3: War of 1812 Veterans

K-106 --  Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer and veterans of the War of 1812, July 4, 1871, by Simon Wing, Monroe, Michigan.  Copied from the unique, original, direct-contact albumen print, courtesy of the Monroe County Historical Commission.

Taken at the residence of Joseph Guyor, Guyonr's Island, two miles east of Monroe, Michigan.

TOP ROW:  John Beshear, John Clapper, age 76; Lieutenant Colonel George A, Custer; Francis Lazarre, age 82;  Jean DeChovin, age 72.


Tuesday, September 18, 2018

Lt.Col. Custer and War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 2: Custer in 1871

The photograph was taken July 4, 1871.  The book has a timeline of Custer's life in the back of it.

The end of 1870 found Custer and his regiment at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

JAN. 11--  Custer is given 120 days leave to consider resigning from the Army.  Custer and his wife Libbie return to Monroe, Michigan.

From there, Custer travels to New York to investigate a financial career.

FEBRUARY--  Custer is in New York, hoping to sell some mining stock.

SUMMER--  Custer travels between Monroe, Michigan, and New York City.

JULY--  While in New York and Saratoga, Custer asks for and receives a 30-day extension on his leave.

JULY 4--  Custer is in Monroe, Michigan, for a reunion of the veterans of the War of 1812.

SEPTEMBER 3--  Custer is ordered to report to his new post at Elizabethtown, Kentucky.

NOVEMBER 20--  Custer and Libbie are in Lexington, Kentucky.  For two weeks they visit in Louisville and Cincinnati, Ohio.


For Some More On Custer

I have also been writing about George Armstrong Custer in my Saw the Elephant Civil War blog.

He went to the USMA at West Point with James Barroll Washington from Baltimore and the two became great friends.  But, Washington (a distant relative of George Washington, joined the Confederacy in the Civil War.  he was captured at the Battle of Seven Pines and encountered Custer while a prisoner.

The two relived old days and sat for photographs.


Monday, September 17, 2018

Custer and the War of 1812-- Part 2: Custer and River Raisin Massacres

George Armstrong Custer remembered the Raisin as well.  He spent much of his youth in Monroe, Michigan, the city that grew up along the River Raisin.

In 1871, he was photographed with War of 1812 veterans beside a monument to Americans slaughtered during and especially after the battle.

Five years later, George A, Custer also died fighting Indians, in one of the most lopsided defeats for U.S. forces since the River Raisin Battle 63 years before his massacre.


Friday, September 14, 2018

Sept. 14, 1814: By the Dawn's Early Light, "The Star-Spangled Banner"

On this date in 1814, Francis Scott Key wrote his poem "The Defence of Fort McHenry" after witnessing the British bombardment of Baltimore's McHenry in Maryland during the War of 1812.

It was later set to music and renamed "The Star-Spangled Banner" and, you know the rest.


Thursday, September 13, 2018

Custer and the War of 1812-- Part 1: The River Raisin Massacre

From the Smithsonian Magazine  "The Ten Things You Didn't Know About the War of 1812" by Tony Horwitz and Brian Wolly.

Yesterday I wrote about a photograph of George Armstrong Custer and War of 1812 veterans taken in 1871.

7.  The Ill-fated  General Custer had his start in this war.

In 1813, by the River Raisin in Michigan, British and their Indian allies dealt the U.S. its most stinging defeat in the War of 1812, and the battle was followed by  an Indian attack on the wounded prisoners, often referred to as a massacre.  The incident sparked the American battle cry, "Remember the Raisin."

William Henry Harrison, who later led the U.S. to victory  against the British and Indians, is remembered on his tomb as the "Avenger of the Massacre of the River Raisin."

George Armstrong Custer grew up in Monroe, Michigan, located by the River Raisin.


Wednesday, September 12, 2018

Lt.Col. George Armstrong Custer and War of 1812 Veterans

From the book "Custer in Photographs" by D. Mark Katz.

Yesterday I bought this book at the Friends of the Woodstock (Illinois) Library book sale room.  It contains every known photograph of the man, at least up until the publish date in 1985.

Quite an accomplishment, but you can only look at so many pictures of Custer and it gets boring.

However, on page 90, I found a picture of him posing with War of 1812 veterans on July 4, 1871.  These were quite some elderly gentlemen back then.

Custer stands in the back row in one of his classic, but not in a military uniform, poses looking to his right whereas all the rest are looking forwards.

Could this be one of the largest gatherings of War of 1812 veterans ever photographed?    There are 19 of them in the picture.


James Lingan-- Part 2: American Revolution "I'll Rot First"

James Lingan enlisted in the Continental Army just nine days after the signing of the Declaration of Independence.  He became a lieutenant in the Rawlings Additional Regiment, but was captured at Fort Washington on November 16, 1776.  James McHenry, for whom Fort McHenry in Baltimore was named, was also captured at this fort.

His imprisonment on the infamous prison hulk HMS Jersey.  He was initially kept in a cell where he could neither lie down or stand up.  A distant cousin, Samuel Hood, approached him and offered 10,000 pounds and a commission in the British Army to switch sides.  He reportedly answered, "I'll rot first."

He later gained the reputation as a defender of prisoner rights.  On one occasion, he defended the body of a recently deceased prisoner from guards who wanted to behead the corpse to make it fit into a small coffin.

He remained on the ship until the end of the war.


Tuesday, September 11, 2018

Tinley Park Gets Piece of World Trade Center

From the September 6, 2016, NBC 5 Chicago News.  Al Romero.

The mangled wreckage of the World Trade Center in Manhattan, New York City is perhaps the most enduring image of the 9/11 attacks.  (For me, the image is of the towers with the smoke coming out of the upper stories against that beautiful blue sky.)

Now, Tinley Park, a Chicago suburb, will get a piece of it to build a memorial.  Firefighters from Tinley Park will travel to the New York area next week to pick up the beam.  They hope to have it back in time for the 10th anniversary commemoration and eventually the village hopes to have it included in a permanent memorial for first responders.

Fire departments across the country were offered pieces of the WTC wreckage.

Frankfort and Oak lawn are other Chicago-area communities where pieces of the wreckage are on display to honor  the first responders at the site.

Monday, September 10, 2018

James Lingan, Revolutionary War Hero and Victim of Baltimore Riots-- Part 1

From Wikipedia.

Born May 15, 1751   Died July 28, 1812 (age 61, Baltimore, Maryland)

Died in the Baltimore Riots

Officer in the Continental Army and a senior officer in the Maryland State Militia.

Taken prisoner at Fort Washington early in the American Revolution and spent several years aboard a British prison hulk ship.  Always and outspoken advocate of the freedom of the press, at  the beginning of the War of 1812, Lingan was murdered by a  while defending the office of an anti war Federalist newspaper in Baltimore.


Saturday, September 8, 2018

"Light-Horse Harry" Lee-- Part 5: Seriously Injured in the Riots and Death

Henry Lee III suffered serious and extensive internal injuries, as well as face and head wounds and even his speech was affected.  His observed symptoms were consistent with what today would be called post traumatic stress disorder.  He went home but was unable to heal and then he went to the West Indies in an effort to recuperate from his injuries.

On his way back to Virginia, he died March 25, 1818, at Dungeness on Cumberland Island, Georgia.  He was cared for there by Nathaniel Greene's daughter  Louisa.

"Light-Horse Harry" Lee was buried at a small cemetery in Dungeness with full military honors provided by the American fleet at St. Marys, Georgia.  In 1913, his remains were removed to the Lee family crypt at Lee Chapel on the campus of Washington & Lee University in Lexington, Virginia.


Friday, September 7, 2018

"Light-Horse Harry" Lee-- Part 4: The Baltimore Riots of 1812

Lee retired from public service in 1801 and lived at Stratford Plantation, but did a poor job managing it.  Financial misfortunes followed him until in 1809 he was bankrupt and served one year in debtors prison.  After his release he moved his family to Alexandria, Virginia.

During the Baltimore Riots of 1812 he received grave injuries while resisting an attack on his old friend, Alexander Contee Hanson, editor of the Baltimore newspaper, the Federal Republican, a strongly anti-Madison and War of 1812 paper.

On July 27, 1812, a Baltimore Democrat-Republican mob attacked and Lee and Hanson and two dozen other Federalists had taken refuge in the newspaper offices.  They surrendered to Baltimore city officials the next day and were jailed for their safety.

Laborer George Woolslager led a mob that forced its way into the jail.  They removed Hanson, Lee and the other Federalists and beat and tortured them over the next three hours.  All were severely injured and one of them, James Lingan, and American Revolution hero, died.


Thursday, September 6, 2018

Henry Lee III-- Part 3: Politician and Marriages

Henry Lee organized the Virginia militia.  When war with Britain became imminent, Lee requested  asked President James Madison for a commission, but that didn't happen.

From 17886 to 1788, Lee was a delegate to the Congress of teh Confederation and in 1788 a delegate  at the Virginia convention to ratify the U.S. Constitution.  From 1789 to 1791, he served in Virginia's General Assembly and then from 1791 to 1794, he was governor of Virginia.

Then, 1791 to 1801, he served as a U.S. representative.  he gave a famous eulogy for former President Washington when he died. in 1799, with the words:  "First in war, First in pace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen."

He married twice and it was from the second one that Robert E. Lee was born.


Wednesday, September 5, 2018

Henry Lee III-- Part 2: Hero of the American Revolution and How He Got the Nickname

During the American Revolution, he commanded a mixed group of infantry and cavalry called Lee's Legion where he won great acclaim of the leader of  light troops.

At that time, highly mobile groups of light cavalry provided valuable service not only during major battles, but also by  conducting reconnaissance and surveillance , engaging enemy troops during their movement, disrupting the delivery of supplies, raiding, skirmishing and expeditions behind enemy lines.

During his time in command of Lee's Legion, he gained the nickname "Light-Horse Harry."  After being awarded the Gold Medal by the Continental Congress, he was transferred to the southern theater and where he fought with Francis Marion, the Swamp Fox, and where he captured many British outposts and distinguished himself.

He was present at the British surrender at Yorktown, but resigned from the Army shortly afterwards.

In 1794, George Washington put him in command of militia troops to defeat the Whiskey Rebellion then, in anticipation of war with France, he was appointed major general.  In 1808, President Jefferson  recommissioned him as major general in anticipation of war with England.


Major General Henry Lee III-- Part 1: "Light-Horse Harry"

From Wikipedia.

One of the men almost killed while defending Alexander Contee Hanson, was a hero of the American Revolution and owner of a famous nick-name.  He would be Henry Lee III.

(January 29, 1756-March 25, 1818)

Was ninth governor of Virginia and a U.S. representative from Virginia.  His service during the American Revolution earned him the nickname by which he is probably best known, "Light-Horse Harry."  Lee was also the father of the Civil War's Robert E. Lee.


Tuesday, September 4, 2018

Alexander Cortee Hanson-- Part 5: Belmont Estate

From Wikipedia.

Belmont Estate is now Belmont Manor Historic Park and is located in Elkridge, Maryland.  From the late 17th century until 1962 the property was privately owned.

It has been associated with important people during this time, but I will concentrate on Alexander Contee Hanson since I have been writing about him.

The plantation house, built around 1738 is an example of Colonial Georgian architecture.  Property now contains around 68 acres.  The land eventually was passed on to Priscilla, the wife of Alexander Contee Hanson.


Monday, September 3, 2018

Alexander Cortee Hanson-- Part 4: His Grave

From Find-A-Grave.


Birth:   27 February 1786
Annapolis, Maryland

Death   23 April  1819 (Age 39)
Elkridge, Maryland

Burial:  Hanson Family Burial Ground  This cemetery is located at his estate, "Belmont">
Elkridge, Maryland

There is more information about what I have already covered in the last several posts, but strangely, no mention of the Baltimore Riots of 1812.


Alexander Cortee Hanson-- Part 3: After the Baltimore Riots

I had never heard of the Baltimore riots of 1812 before until I found out about Mayor  Edward Johnson of Baltimore's role in it.

After the Riots:  A Political Career

In 1812, Hanson was elected  as a Federalist representing the 3rd District of Maryland to the 13th and 14th Congresses, serving from  March 4, 1813, until he resigned in 1816.  he also became a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1815.

In 1816, he was an unsuccessful candidate for election to the Maryland House of Delegates, but was elected as a Federalist to the U.S. Senate to fill the tenure of Robert Goodloe Harper who had resigned.  He served that post from  December 20, 1816,  until his own death on his estate "Belmont"  near Elkridge, Maryland.  (This  place still stands.)

In 1805, he was married to Priscilla Dorsey.


Sunday, September 2, 2018

Alexander Cortee Hanson-- Part 2: The Baltimore Riot

Undeterred by this, Hanson reissued the paper on July 28 from another building where he was joined by a group of armed friends to protect him.  When the mob came again, they besieged the building and Hanson and his group opened fire, killing two of the mob.

On the morning of July 29, Hanson and his group surrendered to Baltimore's local militia and were escorted to jail.

That evening, the mob came back and stormed the jail and Hanson was beaten and left for dead.    James Lingan, a military officer who came to Hanson's defense, died as a result of the violence.  Also, Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee, hero of the American Revolution and father of future Confederate General Robert R. Lee, was there and was injured.

Alexander Hanson recovered, though, and moved his paper to Georgetown, District of Columbia, where he published it unmolested.  He later moved to Rockville, Maryland.

And You Think Things Are Bad Now?  At Least They Weren't Pulling Down Statues.  --Brock-Perry

Saturday, September 1, 2018

Alexander Cortee Hanson and the Baltimore Lynch Mob-- Part 1

In the last post I mentioned how Baltimore Mayor Edward Johnson risked his life to save this man and Robert E. Lee's father, Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee from a lynch mob in Baltimore in 1812.  I'd never heard of this before so some more research was in order.

From Wikipedia.

February 27, 1786 to April 23, 1819

Lawyer, publisher and statesman.  Born in Annapolis, Maryland.

He studied law and was admitted to the Maryland bar and had a practice in Annapolis.  From 1811 to 1815, he was a member of the Maryland House of Delegates.

Hanson established and edited the Federalist Republican an extreme Federalist newspaper in Baltimore.  On June 22, 1812, four days after the declaration of war on Britain, a mob that was irritated by  his articles denouncing the Madison administration destroyed his office.

Anti-Federalists?  --Brock-Perry

Friday, August 31, 2018

Edward Johnson-- Part 2: Defender of Alexander Hanson and "Light-Horse Harry" Lee

His third term as mayor coincided with the War of 1812  Shortly after the outbreak of the war, despite his his strong anti-British sentiments and anti-Federalist political views, he was nearly killed unsuccessfully trying to stop a mob who had stormed Baltimore City Jail intent on lynching Alexander Hanson, publisher of an extreme Federalist newspaper.

One of the editor's allies was none other than Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee.  He was the father of Robert E. Lee of Confederate fame.

During the Battle of Baltimore, Johnson headed the Committee of Vigilance and Safety.  Even though General William Winder had command of Baltimore, he appointed General Samuel Smith to command American defenses of the city.

He continued with private and public work after the war.


Thursday, August 30, 2018

Edward Johnson, Baltimore's Mayor When British Attacked-- Part 1

From Wikipedia.


American politician and businessman.  Served as Baltimore's mayor for six terms between 1808 and 1824. He was Baltimore's mayor when the British attacked and was instrumental in organizing the civilian defense of the city.  For several years he was owner of one of the city's largest breweries as well as a director of the Bank of Baltimore.

In 1789 he was listed as a brewer. and by 1807 he was sole owner of it.  He remained as owner of the brewery for his first two terms as mayor (two-year terms) but the brewery burned down in 1812.  he rebuilt it but sold it to George Brown in 1813.

A month afterwards, Mary Pickersgill assembled the famous Star-Spangled Banner flag on the brewery floor.


David Poe, Sr.-- Part 3: LaFayette Impressed With Him

Amd, Mrs. Poe, David's wife, Elizabeth, was just as patriotic as he was.  When Lafayette passed through Baltimore with his ragged Continental troops, she was one of the women who supplied clothing for them.

It was due to these services by the Poes, that LaFayette and given a ball in his honor in 1824, he remarked that he hadn't seen David Poe, Sr. or his wife Elizabeth.

Upon hearing that he had passed away, LaFayette insisted on visiting the grave.  Once there, he knelt to the ground and kissed it and said , "Here lies a noble heart."

At age 71, Poe participated in the War of 1812 in the defense of Baltimore.

Quite a Man.  --Brock-Perry

Wednesday, August 29, 2018

David Poe, Sr.-- Part 2: From Ireland and Service in the American Revolution

From FaceBook, The Macabre Edgar Allan Poe.

David Poe came from Ireland to the American colonies sometime in 1742 or 1743.  He settled in Baltimore where he became an influential and rich citizen making spinning wheels and clock reels.  With the coming of the American Revolution, he was a member of Captain John McClellan's Company of Baltimore troops in 1778 and 1779.

He was commissioned Assistant Deputy Quartermaster General for the City of Baltimore with the rank of major on September 17, 1779.  One of his duties was to transport the French Allies  from Baltimore by sea from Baltimore and across the Susquehanna River.  he did this very successfully.  The people of Baltimore were so impressed with that and other services he did that he received the honorable name of "General."


Tuesday, August 28, 2018

David Poe, Sr.-- Part 1: Grandfather of Edgar Allan Poe

From  American Revolutionary War Veteran Graves.

David Poe, Sr. is a Revolutionary War veteran buried at Westminster Burial Grounds in Baltimore, Maryland.

Born in Londonderry, Ireland, in 1743 and came to the American colonies and served in the American Revolution.  In addition to serving as a major in the war, he also served as Assistant Deputy Quartermaster of the City of Baltimore.

A strong supporter of the colonists, he even gave $40,000 of his own money to the cause.

He later took up arms again in the War of 1812 at the Battle of Baltimore at the age of 70.

David Poe, Sr. was the grandfather of Edgar Allan Poe whose original burial site was next to him.


Wednesday, August 22, 2018

Westminster Burying Grounds-- Part 3: It's A Poe, Poe Thing

EDGAR ALLAN POE--  (1809-1849)--  Short story writer, editor and critic

VIRGINIA ELIZA CLEMM POE--  (1822-1847)  Teenage wife of Edgar Allan Poe

MARIA CLEMM--  (1790-1870)--  Mother-in-Law and aunt of David Allan Poe

WILLIAM HENRY LEONARD POE--  (1807-1831)--  Brother of Davis Allan Poe

GENERAL DAVID POE, SR.--  (1743-1816)--  Grandfather of David Allan Poe


Tuesday, August 21, 2018

Westminster Burying Grounds-- Part 2: Notables Buried There

Some notable people buried at Westminster Burying Grounds:

JAMES CALHOUN--  (1743-1816)  Last mayor of Baltimore Town, First mayor of the City of Baltimore.

EDWARD JOHNSON--  (1767-181839)--  Mayor of Baltimore during the British attack in September 1814.  Chairman of the "Committee of Vigilance and Safety."

PHILIP BARTON KEY--  (1818-1859)--  Son of Francis Scott Key.    Shot and killed by  Daniel E. Sickles, his lover's husband in Lafayette Park across from the White House in Washington, D.C.,  27 February 1829.   (I wrote about this in my Saw the Elephant blog this month.  Sickles and his lawyers used temporary insanity as a reason.  Sickles later was a general in the Civil War.)

JAMES McHENRY-- (1753-1816)--   Signer of the U.S. Constitution, Secretary of War and namesake for Fort McHenry.


Westminster Hall and Burying Ground-- Part 1: Samuel Smith and Edgar Allan Poe Buried There

From Wikipedia.

Samuel Smith, who I have been writing about, is buried here.

A graveyard and former church at 519 Fayette Street in Baltimore, Maryland.  The site is probably most famous for Edgar Allan Poe being buried there.

The graveyard was established in January 1787 by the First Presbyterian Church.  Over the next sixty years it became the burial ground of important and influential people including merchants, politicians, statesmen and dozens of veterans of the American Revolution and the War of 1812.

In 1852 the Westminster Presbyterian Church was built over the graveyard with its brick piers straddling the graves.  People in Baltimore began referring to the burying grounds as the catacombs.


Monday, August 20, 2018

Samuel Smith-- Part 7: His Statue 3

At the top of the monument is a copper statue of Samuel Smith (1874-1951) standing eight feet high.  It is one a seven high granite base with the inscriptions.

The sculpture cost $10,000 and was funded from money raised by the National Star-Spangled Banner Centennial Commission.

Samuel Smith is buried at Westminster Hall and Burying Ground in Baltimore along with many other Baltimore and War of 1812 notables.


Samuel Smith-- Part 6: His Statue 2

Another inscription on the monument:

"Hero of both wars for American Independence

Long Island
White Plains
Defender of Fort Miflin
Valley Forge

A list of his battles.  The first six are from the American Revolution.


Samuel Smith-- Part 5: His Statue

Samuel Smith's statue is at Federal Hill.  The monument was dedicated on July, 4, 1918. and was created by sculptor Hans Shuler.  From 1918 to 1953, it was located in Wyman Park at Charles and 29th Street.  In 1953 it was moved to Pratt and Light Street and finally moved top its present location in 1970.


Inscription:    "1752-1839   Under his command the attack by the British upon Baltimore  by land and sea Sept., 12-14, 1814 was repulsed.

 "Member of Congress forty successive years, president U.S. Senate, Secretary of the Navy, Mayor of Baltimore."

Quite a Busy Man.  --Brock-Perry