Wednesday, September 30, 2015

Five Things to Know About "The Star-Spangled Banner"-- Part 2: A Shakespearean Connection?

4.  The song lyric's Shakespearean roots.

Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream" contained the phrase "by spangled star-light sheen".

From "Taming of the Shrew" come the words "what stars do spangle heaven with such beauty".

But, did the "Star-Spangled Banner" coin the phrase "In God We Trust."  In its 4th verse, it says, "The conquer we must, when our cause is just.  And this be our motto: 'In God is our trust.'"

5. HOW EMBARRASSING:  Francis Scott Key owned slaves and his descendants supported the Confederacy.  (And, this was before the murders in Charleston in 2015.)

The North adopted "The Star-Spangled Banner" as its unofficial national anthem.  The Confederacy adopted "Dixie" as its unofficial national anthem.  It was written by northerner Daniel Emmett.

Just the Facts.  --Brock-Perry

Tuesday, September 29, 2015

Five Things to Know About "The Star-Spangled Banner"-- Part 1: Amateur Poet

From the September 10, 2014, Daily herald by Juliet Linderman.

1.  What does it have to do with Baltimore?  The Battle of Baltimore

2.  Francis Scott Out-of-Key.  Key was only an amateur poet and probably tone deaf and described by his family as non-musical.

3.  200th Anniversary.  The city was commemorating the 200th anniversary of the September 11, 1814, attack.


Monday, September 28, 2015

Eleazor Wheelock Ripley-- Part 3: War of 1812

Eleazor Ripley was wounded at York and also participated in the battles of Sacketts Harbor and Crysler's Farm.

In April 1814, he was promoted to brigadier general and commanded the Second Brigade of Major general Jacob Brown's Left Division in the Niagara Campaign.  At the Battle of Lundy's Lane, his brigade captured and held British cannons until the Americans could withdraw.  However, Brown accused Ripley for losing those guns.  Ripley demanded and got a court martial to clear his name.

He briefly commanded Brown's division during the Siege of Fort Erie after Brown had been wounded at Lundty's Lane, but he was replaced by Brigadier general Edmund Pendleton Gaines.

Ripley was conspicuous in the repulse of the British assault on Fort Erie on August 16 and the American sortie from the fort on September 17, 1814, where he was wounded again.  he was awarded the Congressional Gold medal for his action at Fort Erie.  This was the precursor of the Medal of Honor.

Ripley later moved to Baton Rouge, Louisiana in 1815 and left the Army in 1820.


Saturday, September 26, 2015

Eleazor Wheelock Ripley-- Part 2: From Maine/Massachusetts

From Wikipedia.

Born 1782 and died March 2, 1839.  American soldier and politician.  Eventually rose to the rank of brigadier general in the U.S. Army and was a U.S. representative from Louisiana 1835-1839.

Born in New Hampshire, he was the grandson of Eleazor Wheelock, founder of Dartmouth College.  He graduated from there in 1800 and practiced law in Maine (a part of Massachusetts at the time).  he was a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives 1810-1811 and Senate in 1812.  (He probably opposed the War of 1812 as most of New England did.)

After the outbreak of war, he organized the 21st U.S. Infantry Regiment and was given the rank of lieutenant-colonel.  Promoted to colonel and commander of the regiment in March 1813, most of his soldiers were from Maine and Massachusetts.


Friday, September 25, 2015

Eleazor Wheelock Ripley-- Part 1: Hero at Fort Erie

From History of the 21st U.S. Infantry 1812-1813.

Like the last person I wrote about, William Goldsmith Belknap, who was another officer involved in the operations at Fort Erie, Upper Canada during the War of 1812.

Colonel of the 21st U.S. Infantry, Eleazor Wheelock Ripley led troops at the September 17th sortie from Fort Erie and cited for bravery and ability.  He received a severe wound and had to go to Buffalo where he recuperated for three months. where he hovered between life and death.

Congress voted him its thanks and he received a Gold Medal.


Thursday, September 24, 2015

William Goldsmith Belknap-- Part 3

William  Belknap was involved in may battles during the Mexican War and brevetted to colonel for gallantry in Gen. Zachary Taylor's Rio Grande Campaign.  He was inspector general at the Battle of Monterrey, became a lieutenant colonel  September 26, 1847 and brevetted to brigadier general on February 23, 1847, for service at the Battle of Buena Vista.

After the war he commanded Fort Gibson in Oklahoma, then Indian Territory, from 1848 to 1850.

He died of dysentery on November 10, 1851 while searching for a location for a military post to protect California-bound settlers and Texas emigrants.

He was also the father of William W. Beknap who became a Union general during the Civil War and was later Secretary of War under President U.S. grant from 1869 to 1876.


Wednesday, September 23, 2015

What Does Brevetted Mean?

In the last entry, I mentioned that William G. Belknap was brevetted three times during the course of his long military career.  Some folks might not understand what this means.

When a person is brevetted in the U.S. military, this means that they attain a higher rank, but without the pay or most of the privileges that go with it.

This often happens at retirement.  But often it also takes place as a reward for gallant service.


Tuesday, September 22, 2015

William Goldsmith Belknap-- Part 2: Brevetted Three Times

From Wikipedia.

Born September 7, 1794 in New York.  Died November 10, 1851.  Career soldier, brevetted three times for service during three wars: War of 1812, Second Seminole War and Mexican War.  Eventually rose to the rank of brigadier general and served as commandant of Forts Gibson, Washita and Smith.

He was a lieutenant in the War of 1812 and wounded in the sortie from Fort Erie on September 17, 1814.

Was made captain on February 1, 1822 and major on Jan. 31, 1842.  Brevetted to lieutenant-colonel; March 15, 1842 for his service in the Second Seminole War in Florida.

In 1828, Captain Belknap assisted in the establishment of Fort Leavenworth in Kansas.


Monday, September 21, 2015

William Goldsmith Belknap-- Part 1: Wounded Twice at Fort Erie

From the Chronicles of Oklahoma.

Born 1794.

Appointed 3rd lieutenant in 23rd U.S. Infantry April 5, 1813.  In October was promoted to 2nd lieutenant.  While a 1st Lt. at Fort Erie, he was wounded August 15, 1814.  He was wounded again on the September 17 sortie from Fort Erie.

Later, he commanded Fort Gibson, Fort Washita and Fort Smith.


Saturday, September 19, 2015

David Riddle

2nd. lieutenant 15th Infantry, April 9, 1812

Brevet captain July 25, 1814 for gallant conduct at the Battle of Niagara.  Brevet major on September 17, 1814 for gallant conduct during sortie from Fort Erie.


Friday, September 18, 2015

A British Trophy From the 1813 Raid on Hampton-- Part 2

The Rutherford Rifle is stamped with the number of the 115th Virginia Militia Regiment which was made up of men from Elizabeth City, York and Warwick counties.  There are also the initials ECC for "Elizabeth City County."

Captain Richard servant and his company were the first to respond to the alarm and had to fight 1,200 British who had landed at what is now Wythe and began advancing  on the rear of the American battery at Cedar Point.Servant's men fired on the British from the woods and temporarily slowed them, but were forced to withdraw because of superior numbers.

A rifle from Servant's men was picked up as a war trophy by British Lt.Col. Charles Napier and remained in his family for 150 years before it was returned to the United States and acquired by the Hampton History Museum in 2004 through a fund-raising campaign.


Thursday, September 17, 2015

A British Trophy from the 1813 Sack of Hampton, Va.-- Part 1

From the June 10, 2013, Hampton Roads (Va.) Daily Press by Mark Sty. John Erickson.

Photo of the rifle accompanies the article with the mark of the 115th Virginia Regiment of Hampton Volunteer Rifle Co. on its barrel.

It is a rare rifle which tells the story of Elizabeth City County militia who fought overwhelming odds on June 25, 1813 at the Battle of Hampton.

It was made by noted gunsmith Archibald Rutherford of Harrisonburg in 1811.  His rifles were a lot more accurate than the smoothbore muskets of the time.  It was carried into battle by a member of Captain Richard B. Servants company of 75 elite Hampton volunteer "Riflemen."


Wednesday, September 16, 2015

Archaeologists Look for Fort Russell in Illinois-- Part 2

In 1812 Indians killed a settler near what is now the Village of Pochahontas and another near present-day Alton.  This caused Territorial Governor Ninian Edwards to order the construction of several blockhouses (two-story windowless) where settlers could take refuge, at twenty mile intervals between the Mississippi and Kaskaskia rivers.

Troops were stationed at Fort Russell and cannons from Fort de Chartres, a former French outpost, were brought in for defense.

Kind of Sad When You Lose a Whole Fort.  --Brock-Perry

Archaeologists Look for Fort Russell-- Part 1

From the April 3, 2012, Edwardsville (Ill.) Intelligencer by Oliver Wiest.

They are still looking for the site of Fort Russell which was built 200 years ago to protect Edwardsville from  Indian attack during the War of 1812.  A government land office survey puts its site around Springfield Road northwest of Edwardsville.

A musket ball was found along Route 159, north of town.  The fort might have been there, but then again it might not.

What they do know is that it was a 150-foot square fortification located along what was then called Edwards Trace, now Springfield Road.  This path had been used by American Indians for a thousand years.


Tuesday, September 15, 2015

Newport, Rhode Island's Fort Adams

From Wikipedia.

While doing my Civil War Navy blog about the U.S. Naval Academy's move to Newport, Rhode Island, for safety during the war, I came across the name of Fort Adams, which protected the town.  I found that it did have a War of 1812 connection so will write about it here.

The Fort Adams that was in place (there were two of them at the site) was built in 1799 and named after the incumbent president at the time, John Adams.  It was a First System Fort and designed by Major Louis de Tousard and mounted 17 cannons.

Its first commander was Captain John Henry who the article mentioned was instrumental in starting the War of 1812.  Looks like I have something to research for tomorrow's post.

During the War of 1812 it was manned by Wood's State Corps of the Rhode Island militia.

After the war, it was decided to replace the original Fort Adams with a larger and newer fort.  It became what was called the most complex fortification in the Western Hemisphere.


Captain William Nichols-- Part 6: Captured Many Times

From the Marine Society of Newburyport.

Captain William Nichols joined the Marine Society in November 28, 1811.  He was born in 1781 and died Feb. 12, 1863.

he was captured by the French twice (probably during the Quasi War) and in 1811, while commanding the brig Alert, ran the English blockade into the French port of Bordeaux with a cargo of brandy, wine and silk, but the next day, on his way out, was captured by the British frigate HMS Semiramis.

A prize crew was put aboard, but Nichols and four others were left on board and the same day retook their ship.  They put the prize crew in a small boat and cast them off.

A week later, the Alert was again captured, this time by the HMS Vestal..  Nichols and his men were taken to Portsmouth and put aboard a prison ship.  He was later sent ashore for an examination and he escaped again and went to London to secure passage back to the United States.  (This was in 1811, before war had started between the two countries.)  He was spotted by a former jailer but bribed his way out off recapture and returned to Boston.

After the War of 1812 began, he commanded a fast-sailing privateer.  (I imagine the Decautur.)


Newburyport "Clipper City"

I also came across this name for Newburyport, Massachusetts.  There is a whole explanation of it at "Why Newburyport is called 'Clipper City.'"

There is also a Clipper heritage trail.

Though the first of the fast clipper ships wasn't built there, they sure did build a lot of them afterwards and Newburyport clipper ships were a bit different in design.


Monday, September 14, 2015

HMS Surprise: Captured Capt. Nichols

From Wikipedia.  Frigate commissioned in September 1812 under the command of Sir Thomas John Cochrane.  150.4 feet long. Mounted 38 guns.

Captured the 12-gun privateer Decatur 16 Jan. 1813, which was under the command of Captain William Nichols.

Took part in the attack on Washington and the attack on Baltimore.  Converted into a prison hulk in 1822 and sold in 1837.

There is a replica HMS Surprise built in 1970 in Nova Scotia, but it is based on the HMS Rose, a 20-gun 6th rate frigate.


Captain William Nichols-- Part 5: A Book About Him

And there Iwas never having heard of the good captain until I did the blog entry about the boy in Newburyport, Massachusetts who was run over and killed by a gun carriage during the town's celebration of the Treaty of Ghent.

AND,  there is a book written about him.  It is called "Holy Terror: Captain William Nichols: A True Story" by Dr.G. Williams Freeman.  The author is a sixth generation descendant.


Saturday, September 12, 2015

Captain William Nichols-- Part 4: Captured Again

Sailing back to Newburyport, Captain Nichols encountered the British ship Commerce which was twice his size and mounted double the number of heavy cannons.  It was a lopsided battle but even so, the Decatur won.

On his second cruise, Nichols captured even more prizes until he was captured by the British frigate HMS Surprise and taken to Barbados.  When the Vestal showed up there, its captain took Nichols prisoner and put him in a 5 X 7-foot crate for 34 days and then placed in a British prison.

He was exchanged and returned home.  In short order, he returned to his privateering business and put out in the brig Harpy.


Captain William Nichols-- Part 3: Thwarts a Mutiny and Very Successful Cruise

Even without most of his cannons, William Nichols determined to push on and capture some British ships.  His crew, despairing of prizes tried to mutiny, but Nichols overcame the attempt and fortunately the same day, captured two prizes and sent the Duke of Savoy and Elizabeth to Maine.

By September 1, he had a total of nine prizes.  One of his biggest captures was the armed ship Diane with a cargo valued at $400,000.

By now, out of the crew of 160 Nichols had when he sailed, he was down to just 27, the rest being sent to crew the prizes to port.


Captain William Nichols-- Part 2: A Case of Mistaken Identity

Back in the United States, Captain Nichols was put in command of the privateer Decatur and left Newburyport, Massachusetts, on Auguist 4, 1813.  He spotted a large frigate ship which he took to be British and fled as quickly as he could, knowing a fight would come to nothing but bad for him.  He ended up throwing 12 of his 14 cannons overboard in the attempt to escape, but was still overtaken by the frigate.

It turned out to be the USS Constitution.  Once on board and greatly relieved, Nichols told the Isaac Hull, the Constitution's commander, that he had seen the HMS Guerriere prowling about in the local waters which set up the famous battle.


Friday, September 11, 2015

Remembering 9/11 in 2015

Today is the 14th anniversary of those horrible airline crashes.  It was a beautiful day here in the Chicagoland area.

This will be the subject of all my blogs today.

One song that always brings me back to that day, and gets my patriotism boiling is Toby Keith's "Courtesy of the Red, White & Blue (The Angry American)"  Especially the part about the boot.  I wanted instant retaliation that day, I can tell you that.

From Wikipedia.

The song was written in late 2001 and inspired by the death of Toby Keith's father and 9/11.  Released in May 2002 as the lead single from his album "Unleashed."

It topped the Billboard Hot Country and Tracks chart and even reached #25 on the Hot 100 chart of pop songs, his highest chart spot ever on it.

Continued on my Tattooed On Your Soul World War II blog.

Thursday, September 10, 2015

Captain William Nichols-- Part 1: Amazing Privateer Captain "Here Are Three Guineas"

While researching Newburyport, Massachusetts, I came across the name of a Captain William Nichols of the privateer Decatur.

From Ancestory Archives by Melissa Davenport Berry.

He was born and grew up in Newburyport and had sea experience from a young age before the War of 1812.

While in command of the brig Alert in 1811 and had been captured but had concealed a brace of pistols and when the prize crew aboard his ship weren't watching, he retook the ship.

Now, this was before the war was declared.

And then, he was captured again soon after that and this time he did not retake the ship.  He was taken to England and put in prison.  A prison from which he soon escaped and took a coach to London to procure passage home..  Once there, he was spotted by the sergeant from whom he had just escaped and Nichols said, "Here are three guineas you can have, but never me."  Fortunately for him, the sergeant favored the coin more and looked the other way.


Newburyport, Massachusetts

I'd never heard of this town so looked iy up in good ol' Wikipedia.

Newburyport is located about 35 miles northeast of Boston.  Some notable facts about it:

 **  It is the home of the first U.S. Coast Guard Station.

**  Many clipper ships were built here in the 1800s and I'm not sure, but possibly the first one.

**   The "First" Tea Party rebellion against the British tax on tea took place here.

**   The first Massachusetts mint and treasury building were here.

**  It has the nation's oldest active and continuously operating court house.

It was the home of many privateers during the War of 1812.


A Local Newspaper Reports the Death of George Augustus Wood, 9

A follow up to Tuesday's post.

A local Newburyport, Massachusetts, newspaper reported young master Wood's death as follows:

"In the midst of the rejoicing for peace, we regret that it is our painful duty to record one circumstance which very much dampened the general joy.

"George Augustus, the eldest son of Mr. John Wood, aged 9 years, was unfortunately, and instantaneously, killed by a gun carriage passing over him, on State Street, on which there was an 18-pound cannon.

"All sympathy with the afflicted parents in this sudden and difficult event."

The eighteen-pound cannon refers to the weight of the shell/cannonball it fired.


Tuesday, September 8, 2015

End of War Celebration Causes Youngster's Death

From the July 31, 2014 "North Andover (Mass.) Eagle-Tribune "Backyard yields relic of 199-year-old Port tragedy" by Dyke Hendrickson

Newburyport, Massachusetts

The celebration of the end of the war caused a local youngster to be killed.

Michael Prendergast of Merrill Street has found parts of a grave marker under his backyard.

On February 14, 1815, George Augustus Wood, 9, was playing in State Street when he was run over by a gun carriage drawn by horses and died of his injuries.

The marker reads:  "Inscrutable the ways of Providence!  Sacred to the memory of George Augustus Wood, promising son of John and Elizabeth Wood, whose life yo the incomprehensible grief of his parents, was instantly destroyed in a fatal accident amidst the public rejoicing of peace Feb. 14, 1815

The War of 1812 hit Newburyport particularly hard because of maritime restraints and the impressment of American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy.

The article didn't mention how they think the marker came to be in that backyard.

A Sad End to a Great Day.  --Brock-Perry

Foirt Erie Commemoration in 2014-- Part 2: Facts About the Fort

**  Base for British troops, Loyalist Rangers and Iroquois during the American Revolution.

**  Canada's bloodiest field of battle with over 3,000 troops killed and wounded during the Siege of Fort Erie August 3 to September 26, 1814.

**  The major crossing point into Canada of the Underground Railroad 1793-1865.

**  Occupied by the Fenians (Irish Republican Army) during their largest raid in 1866.

**  Visited by Pontiac, General Isaac Brock, General Winfield Scott, Lord and Lady Simcoe, Prince Edward *(future King Edward VII) and Mark Twain.

**  The new visitor center opened July 1, 2011.


Monday, September 7, 2015

Fort Erie Commemoration in 2014-- Part 1

From the August 1, 2014, Niagara At large "War of 1812 Commemoration Anniversary of the Siege of Fort Erie.

Held August 9-10, 2014, the 200th anniversary.

Re-enactment camps were set up on the battlefield grounds on Saturday and there was a re-enactment of General Drummond's night assault on the fort.  Over 1,000 re-enactors registered for the event, making iy the largest to tale place in Canada during the war's bicentennial.

The fort is located on the site of ancient Indian flint quarries.  It was the first fort built by the British in Ontario.  It was rebuilt in 1764 during Pontiac's Rebellion.


Francis Hoyt Gregory, USN: War of 1812 and Civil War

Continued from June 20, 2014.

He continued his naval career until 1858, when he retired.  Returning to the Navy during the Civil War while in his 70s, he superintended the construction and fitting out out of Navy vessels in private shipyards, including ironclad ones.

Promoted to Rear Admiral on July 16, 1862.

Francis Gregory died in Brooklyn on October 4, 1866, after having served in three wars.


Saturday, September 5, 2015

Lt.Col. William S. Hamilton-- Part 4: In Insane Hospital When He Died

From Find-A-Grave.

He was born in Edenton, N.C. on April 3, 1789 and educated at Princeton.  Served as aide-de-camp for Gen. Wade Hampton.  Later was a planter in West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana and a member of the board of trustees of the College of Louisiana in Jackson.

Served in the Louisiana legislature from 1828-1830 and made an unsuccessful run for governor in 1830

Died December 24, 1862, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  The 1860 Census lists him as being at the Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane in Philadelphia.  He was listed as a planter.

His death notice in the Philadelphia North American dated Dec. 27, 1862, gives his age at 78 and from Laurel Hill, West Feliciana, Louisiana.

He is buried at the Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia.


Lt.Col. William S. Hamilton-- Part : Moved to Louisiana

During the War of 1812, he served as aide-de-camp for General Wade Hampton and was later appointed Assistant Inspector General by President Madison in 1813 and worked in Washington.  He later returned to command the 3rd U.S. Infantry, a post he continued with until the end of the war.

Afterwards, he settled in Francisville, Louisiana, and became a prosperous planter.

His coat was given to the Louisiana State Museum by his descendants in 1923.  Estimated cost to conserve his uniform coat is put at $35,000.


Friday, September 4, 2015

Lt.Col. William Sutherland Hamilton-- Part 2: His Coat Is in Louisiana

From the Artist Preservation Group, Inc.(APG)  April 2013 "The uniform coat of Lt.Col. William S. Hamilton, 3rd U.S. Infantry."

The APG was approached in 2013 to see if they could give help in preserving the officer's coat.  They contributed $2,500 to it of the expected $35,000 cost.

The rare wool coat of William Sutherland Hamilton was given to the Louisiana State Museum in 1923 by members of his family.

Hamilton was in the 3rd U.S. Infantry early in the War of 1812 and the rifle regiment later.

He was born in North Carolina in 11787 and served in the 3rd U.S. before the war.

his family had cotton plantation interests in Louisiana and his father relocated there.


Lt.Col. William Sutherland Hamilton-- Part 1: Service

In the last post I mentioned this man as being responsible for recruiting troops for the U.S. Army from the state of North Carolina.

From Find-a-Grave

Lt. Col. in 3rd U.S. Rifle Regiment

First Lt. in 3rd U.S. Infantry.  resigned Nov. 1, 1812

Major 10th U.S. Infantry March 3, 1812

Lt.Col 3rd U.S. Infantry Feb. 21, 1814.


Getting North Carolina Troops to Enlist: $8-12 a Month and 160 Acres

From NC1812 site.

U.S. Army Major William S. Hamilton was appointed to the rank of colonel and placed in charge of recruiting troops for the U.S. Army from North Carolina.  Pay was between $8 and $12 a month, plus a $124 bounty for enlisting and 160 acres of free land after the war.

Most North Carolinians served in the 10th U.S. Infantry Regiment under Col. James Wellborn of Wilkes County, North Carolina.  He resigned his commission in the N.C. militia to join the regular army.

Detached militia in North Carolina was 7,000 men.


Thursday, September 3, 2015

Known U.S. Navy Officers That Served in North Carolina

All of these men were stationed at Wilmington during the War of 1812.

E.D, Morrison-- Surgeon's Mate

Julius Humphreys--Midshipman
William Jaspar--  Midshipman
Joseph Spikenall--  Midshipman

John Mooney--  Sailing Master

James Moore--  Gunner


Wednesday, September 2, 2015

North Carolina in the War of 1812: Call for Wilmington and 1812 and 1814 Musters

From the NC1812 site.

Detached militia called to Wilmington by orders issued September 28, 1814, when it appeared the British were about to attack.

Militia from Bladen, Brunswick, Columbus, Cumberland, Duplin, New Hanover, Robeson and Sampson counties.

1812 Muster

1st Brigade N.C. Militia
2nd brigade N.C. Militia
1st Regiment N.C. Cavalry
1st Regiment N.C. Artillery
1st Regiment N.C. Riflemen

On the 1814 Muster

1st through 7th Regiments N.C. Militia


West Florida's William King-- Part 2: Military Governor

William King was with Andrew Jackson during his controversial invasion of the Spanish colony of West Florida and occupation of Pensacola. Jackson interpreted the surrender of the Spanish governor there as giving the United States control over all of West Florida.

 Jackson then appointed King as the military governor and charged him with enforcing Spanish laws and protecting Spanish people and property.  In addition, King oversaw the dispersal of Tennessee and Kentucky militia.

However, Jackson's invasion of West Florida was a serious threat to U.S. negotiations with Spain to get all of Florida and President James Monroe wanted West Florida restored to Spanish control as soon as possible.  King served at his post until relieved by Edmund P. Gaines.

William Gaines was discharged from the Army in June 1821 and died in January 1826.

Fort King in Florida was named for him.


Tuesday, September 1, 2015

West Florida's Col. William King-- Part 1: Fort King Named for Him

I have been writing about Florida's Fort King in the last two posts.  It was named for William King.

From Wikipedia.

Born in Delaware in the late 18th century.  Died in January 1826.

U.S. Army officer and military governor of West Florida from May 26, 1818, to Feb. 4, 1819.  He was appointed by Andrew Jackson who led the U.S. occupation of Spanish West Florida during the First Seminole War.

King was commissioned a second lieutenant in the U.S. Army in 1808 and served in the War of 1812.  In 1813, he was promoted to colonel and led the 4th U.S. Infantry regiment.  After the war, he served with Jackson in the First Seminole War and was with him during Jackson's controversial 1818 invasion of the Spanish colony of West Florida.


Fort King, Florida-- Part 2: Thompson, Dade and Osceola

I am writing about the Seminole Indians in Florida and the U.S. Army in this blog even though it took place after the War of 1812 because it is directly related to the war.  All the main Americans participated in the war, though I have been unable to find out much about their service.  But, the Indians were definitely one aspect of the war.

From Exploring Southern History.

To say that Wiley Thompson and the Seminoles, and especially warrior Osceola, didn't like each other would be an understatement.  At one point, Thompson had Osceola clapped in irons and held for a period of time.  Osceola decided to have his revenge.

On December 28, 1835, as Francis L. Dade was leading his troops to Thompson's relief, as Wiley Thompson and associates went for a walk, Osceola and his warriors ambushed him and Thompson was shot 14 times and scalped along with six others.

That same day, a larger force of Seminoles attacked Dade and killed him and over 100 others.

This caused the second Seminole War to take place.