Wednesday, April 25, 2018

St. Charles, Mo. & the War of 1812-- Part 4: War on the Frontier Did Not End With Treaty of Ghent

Even after the War of 1812 ended with the Treaty of Ghent, the war along the frontier with the Indians continued.

During the winter of 1814-1815, Captain James Callaway and the U.S. Mounted Rangers operated from Camp Clemson on Loutre (Otter) Island located where the Loutre Creek enters the Missouri River.  This is where present-day Hermann is located.

North of this place was the home of the Sac and Fox Indian tribes.


St. Charles, Mo. & the War of 1812-- Part 3: Battle of Credit Island

William Becknell witnessed a conversation between Benjamin Howard and James Callaway where Howard either borrowed $400 from Callaway or had somehow ended up indebted to Callaway.  This came up in litigation several years later.

Shortly afterwards, the U.S. Mounted Rangers traveled up the Mississippi River to the Rock River in present day Quad-Cities, where the Battle of Credit island took place September 4 and 5.  The American force was led by General Zachary Taylor and was defeated forcing a retreat down the Mississippi River to Fort Johnson, located where the state boundaries of Missouri, Illinois and Iowa meet.

Benjamin Howard returned to St. Louis, but fell sick along the way and died soon afterward.


Tuesday, April 24, 2018

St. Charles & War of 1812-- Part 2: Benjamin Howard

William Becknell was appointed ensign by order of General Benjamin Howard.  James Callaway at the same time was appointed captain of the company of U.S. Mounted Rangers.

In 1810, Benjamin Howard had been appointed governor of the Louisiana Territory by President Madison.  That territory was later renamed the Missouri Territory.  In 1812, he resigned his position to become a brigadier general and assumed command of American troops west of the Mississippi River, including the U.S. Mounted Rangers.

Becknell and his company then spent the majority of the next two years in service northwest of St. Charles, Mo. in an area between the Missouri and the Mississippi rivers.

In the mid-summer of 1814, the company was at Cap au Gris, where the Cuivre River flows into the Mississippi near present-day Troy.


St. Charles (Mo.) & the War of 1812: A Boone Connection

From the World of Hannah Chribbs Evans blog.

The St. Charles militia was commanded by Nathan Boone.  They were replaced by a company of U.S. Mounted Rangers.

By 1813 that company was led by Captain Daniel Morgan Boone and Lt. James Callaway.   The two Boones were the sons of famous frontiersman Daniel Boone, who was then living at Femme Osage Creek, twenty miles southwest of St. Charles.

Lt. Callaway was the son of Flanders and Jemima Boone Callaway, and the grandson of Daniel Boone.

A Daniel Here, A Daniel There.  --Brock-Perry

Monday, April 23, 2018

Benjamin Howard (Missouri)-- Part 3: Where Is He Buried?

Unfortunately, while returning from the attack on Peoria, Howard fell ill and died in St. Louis, Missouri territory on September 18, 1814.  He was originally buried at an unknown site, but likely somewhere in downtown St. Louis.

Later, he was moved to the Old Grove Church graveyard, north of downtown sometime between 1817 and 1844.

Then, he was allegedly reinterred at Bellefontaine Cemetery sometime after 1851, but that cemetery has no record of it.

Find-a-Grave lists him as being buried at Bellefontaine Cemetery.


Benjamin Howard (Missouri)-- Part 2: Attack on Peoria

The Louisiana Territory for which Benjamin Howard was governor was renamed the Missouri Territory in June 1812.

He resigned his post as governor in the War of 1812 and became a brigadier general in the 8th Military Department.  He and Nathan Boone (Daniel Boone's youngest son) attacked Sac and Fox villages in Illinois and established Fort Clark by Peoria.


Saturday, April 21, 2018

Benjamin Howard (Missouri)-- Part 1

 From Wikipedia.

Benjamin Howard moved along the Mississippi River with Col. Benjamin Stephenson in an attempt to clear the Indians out.

1760-September 18, 1814

Congressman from Kentucky, first governor of Missouri Territory, brigadier general War of 1812.

Born in Lexington, Kentucky, then part of Virginia and graduated 1797 from College of William and Mary.  Served in the 10th and 11th Congresses from Kentucky.  On April 17, 1810, was appointed by President James Madison to be governor of Louisiana Territory (the part of the Louisiana Purchase north of the present day state of Louisiana.


Thursday, April 19, 2018

Benjamin Stephenson of Illinois-- Part 10: Dispersing the Indians

They found a deserted Sac village near modern-day Quincy, Illinois,.  They then  marched  east to the Illinois River and followed it to Peoria.

From there they went north to Gomo's village which they found to also be deserted.

There were no battles in the campaign, but it did disperse the Indians and forestalled further attacks.

The force returned to Fort Russell near Edwardsville by late October 1813.


Wednesday, April 18, 2018

Benjamin Stephenson of Illinois-- Part 9: More Indian Problems

But in 1813, problems with the Indians resurfaced in the Illinois Territory as there were scattered attacks in Illinois as well as in the Missouri Territory.

By August 1813, General Benjamin Howard of Missouri had gathered both Illinois and Missouri Rangers and militia.  The Illinois militia was commanded by Benjamin Stephenson.  Howard's army of 1,400 marched north along the Mississippi River.

Howard's men were on the west side of the river while Stephenson was on the east.



Tuesday, April 17, 2018

Benjamin Stephenson of Illinois-- Part 8: The American Attack on the Peoria Villages

On October 18, 1812, Gov. Edwards and 400 mounted troops marched out of Fort Russell and burned two Kickapoo villages on the Saline Fork of the Sangamon River, present-day Springfield, Illinois.

They then turned west and marched to Peoria where they attacked Kickapoo, Miami and Potawatomi villages.  They burned the villages down and destroyed all the provisions, making prospects for winter survival much less.  They also captured 80 horses, took four prisoners and killed between 24 and 30 Indians.

They returned to Fort Russell on November 1 and the militia was released.


Monday, April 16, 2018

Benjamin Stephenson-- Part 7: Edwards Organizes Punitive Expedition Against Indians

Ninian Edwards negotiated with the Potawatomie Chief Gomo, but these negotiations broke down.  Raids and confrontations between small groups of settlers and Indians continued through 1811.  In 1812, the fall of Fort Dearborn (Chicago) and subsequent massacre galvanized public opinion and outrage.

Governor Edwards decided there should be an expedition against the Indians at Peoria Lakes.  Troops from Kentucky were expected to join the expedition but didn't show up.  Edwards had mounted rangers under Col. William Russell of Kentucky, hero of the Battle of King's Mountain during the American Revolution.

Fort Russell by Edwardsville was named for him.

Also in Edwards' force were militia commanded by Charles (Nelson?)  Rector and the newly promoted to colonel Benjamin Stephenson.


Benjamin Stephenson=-- Part 6: A Line of Blockhouses Across the Illinois Territory

From the Benjamin Stephenson House Site "The War of 1812 and Indian Threat."

In the early days of the Illinois Territory, Indians posed a definite threat to white settlement.  The fact that the British constantly meddled in Indian affairs trying to stir them up, made matters worse.

When Ninian Edwards, for whom Edwardsville is named, became territorial governor in 1809, he organized and strengthened the territory's militia.  Benjamin Stephenson was appointed brigade commander of the militia and later became adjutant.

One of the first things Stephenson did was to build a line of blockhouses across the state from east to west.  This line was anchored by Fort Russell, just north of Edwardsville.


Friday, April 13, 2018

Benjamin Stephenson-- Part 5: Very Involved in Edwardsville's Economy

In April 1816 he was appointed Receiver of U.S. Land Office in Edwardsville and held that post until his death in 1822.  In 1818, he was a delegate to Illinois' First Constitutional Convention.  In 1819 he was founder and first president of the Bank of Edwardsville and also held that position until his death.

He was buried at Lusk Cemetery in Edwardsville.

His house, which was built in 1820, still stands and now operates as a museum and is on the National Register of Historic Places.

On his grave he is listed as "Colonel Illinois Militia Rangers War of 1812."


Thursday, April 12, 2018

Benjamin Stephenson-- Part 4: Militia and U.S. House of Representatives

During the War of 1812, he was appointed commander of a regiment of territorial militia with the rank of colonel.  He took part in two campaigns and later was appointed adjutant general.

In September 1814 he was elected as an Illinois Territorial, non-voting, member of the U.S. House of Representatives and served a partial term to March 1815.  Then, he was elected to a full term March 1815 to March 1817..


Wednesday, April 11, 2018

Benjamin Stephenson-- Part 3: Very Important in Early Illinois History

From Find-A-Grave.

July 8, 1769 to October 10, 1822

Buried at Lusk Cemetery in Edwardsville, Illinois.

U.S. Congressman.  Lived in Virginia and Kentucky before moving to Randolph County in Illinois Territory in 1809.  Later appointed Randolph County's first sheriff by Territorial Governor Ninian Edwards.  The two men became good friends for the rest of their lives.

Moved to Edwardsville in Madison County and operated a general store and other businesses.


Benjamin Stephenson of Illinois-- Part 2

He served as representative from Illinois Territory in the U.S. Congress 1814-1816 and was representative to the convention that wrote the first Illinois Constitution in 1818.

In 1820 he built the house that still stands and is believed to be the oldest standing house in the state.

Benjamin Stephenson died October 10, 1822 and is buried in Edwardsville.

Stephenson County in Illinois, in the northern part of the state, is named for him.


Tuesday, April 10, 2018

Benjamin Stephenson of Illinois-- Part 1

On Saturday,. April 7, I wrote about the War of 1812 muster taking place at the Stephenson House in Edwardsville, Illinois, on April 14.  I am familiar with this town because it is on Route 66, but i didn't know about the Stephenson House so did some more research.

From Wikipedia.

Colonel Benjamin Stephenson was a prominent citizen and politician.  Born 1769 in Pennsylvania, moved to Virginia in 1788, then moved to Kentucky and to the Illinois Territory in 1809.

He was an Illinois militia colonel and commanded a regiment in the War of 1812.  In 1813, he was appointed adjutant of the Illinois militia.


Grave of Jacob Nicholas Jones, USN

Last week in a post on the Lewes, Delaware, War of 1812 Heritage Trail, I wrote about the Ryves Holt House which at one time was the home of the famous Commodore Jacob Nicholas Jones, hero of the USS Wasp-HMS Frolic battle in the war.

He is buried in the Wilmington and Brandywine Cemetery in Wilmington, Delaware.


Monday, April 9, 2018

War of 1812 Memorial Park in Lewes, Delaware-- Part 2: The First City in the First State

From the City of Lewes site, which bills itself as "The First Town in the First State."

 Located downtown by the entrance to the Otis Smith City Docks.  Also known as "The Cannonball Park" at the corner of Savannah Road and Front Street, along the Lewes-Reheboth Canal.

The park commemorates the defense of Lewes during a two-day British bombardment April 6-7, 1813.  Many of the cannonballs fired by the British were collected by local residents and preserved to this day.

The site was where a battery was located during the attack and is marked by a granite monument.

The four large guns are from the U.S. government and the small gun is believed to be from a pirate vessel found abandoned in the creek.  There is also a 3-inch World War I naval gun on the lower terrace of the park that was placed there by the American Legion in 1930.


War of 1812 Memorial Park in Lewes, Delaware

From TripAdvisor.

Located on Front Street and Canal Street across from the post office and the Cannonball House in Lewes, Delaware.    One reader said his kids enjoy the cannon and a dock that is popular with fishermen and a good place to watch cruising boats.  Located in downtown Lewes, right by shopping.

Has authentic War of 1812 cannons.

So, get Your History and Shopping Too.  --Brock-Perry