Thursday, July 27, 2017

John B. Campbell and the War in Indiana-- Part 8: Frostbite Prevalent

DECEMBER 24, 1812

His troops decimated by freezing weather, Campbell arrived back at Fort Greenville.  More than 300 of his troops suffered from frostbite.

He allowed the Indian women and children to ride captured Indian horses on the return trip.  The captives were escorted to Indian settlements at Piqua.


Wednesday, July 26, 2017

John B. Campbell-- Part 7: Withdrawal Due to Cold

DECEMBER 18, 1812

Just before dawn, a force of about 300 Indians counter attacked Campbell, killing eight soldiers and wounding 48.  Fifteen Indians were killed.

Faced with bitter cold, mounting casualties and the loss of 109 soldiers killed in battles, Campbell determines to withdraw his forces to Fort Greenville.


Monday, July 24, 2017

John B. Campbell and the War in Indiana-- Part 5: Ordered to Destroy Miami Village of Mississinewa

NOVEMBER 25, 1812--

Harrison orders Campbell to attack and destroy the Miami village of Mississinewa.  Campbell is advised to try to spare chiefs Richardville, Silver Heels, White Loon, Charley and Pecon, and the sons and daughters of Little Turtle if it can be done without risk to his force.

He is also advised to guarantee the safety of the Indian women and children who are to be captured and conducted back to settlements in Ohio -- a condition that will eventually cost Campbell severe losses among his troops.


John B. Campbell and the War in Indiana-- Part 6: A Cold March and a Surprise

DECEMBER 14, 1812

Campbell's force of nearly 600 mounted troops, guided by William Conner departs Fort Greenville, Ohio, on an 80-mile forced march to the Miami towns on the Mississinewa River.

The snow is knee deep and the weather is bitter cold.

DECEMBER 18, 1812

Campbell's force surprises and attacks the first of four Indian villages on the Mississinewa River near present-day Jalapa.  Eight Indians and one African-American were killed and 42 Indians, including 34 women and children are captured.  Two American soldiers are killed.


Friday, July 21, 2017

John B. Campbell and the War in Indiana-- Part 4: Indian Threat

NOVEMBER 15, 1812--

Informed of General Samuel Hopkins' defeat in Illinois and the growing confidence of the Indians in attacking the Army's supply lines, Harrison advises Eustis that he command Colonel John B. Campbell to direct an expedition against the Indian town of Mississinewa.

It will be the rendezvous where the Indians are certain to receive provisions and assistance in launching attacks on every military convoy in Ohio between St. Mary's and the Miami rapids (present-day Mau Mee).

NOVEMBER 22, 1812--

General Hopkins' force destroys Prophetstown along with deserted Winnebago and Kickapoo villages along the Tippecanoe River.

The Indians ambush and kill sixteen of Hopkins' force on Wildcat Creek, northwest of present-day Kokomo.


Thursday, July 20, 2017

John B. Campbell and the War in Indiana-- Part 3: To Attack Or Not To Attack

OCTOBER 26, 1812

Harrison seeks approval from U.S. Secretary of War William Eustis, to attack Indiana towns along the Mississinewa River in Indiana.

NOVEMBER 5, 1812

Secretary Eustis advises Harrison that "the Miamis, as well as other Indians, must be dealt with as their merits and demerits may in your judgement require."

In other words, passing the responsibility along.

And, It Is Starting To Get COLD.  --Brock-Perry

John B. Campbell and the War in Indiana-- Part 2: Miamis Stirring Up Trouble

Timeline of 1812 events in Indiana.

SEPTEMBER 24, 1812

William Henry Harrison is given command of the Second Army of the West, replacing General James Winchester.

OCTOBER 11, 1812--

Indiana Agent B.F. Stickney passes along information from fur trader John Conner to Harrison.  he reported that from September 13 to October 2, the Miamis had sent nine messengers to the Delaware Indians inviting them to join forces with them in a war versus the United States.


This John B. Campbell Is Not the One From the Battle of Rock Island Rapids

I was looking to find out more information on the commander of American forces at the Battle of Rock Island Rapids and for whom Campbell island was named for in Illinois.

I came across the name of John B. Campbell, an American officer during the War of 1812, and initially thought he was the same.  This is the man I wrote about in yesterday's post.

It turns out they are two different men, but I did see some sources confusing the two.

The Battle of Rock Island Rapids was fought July 19, 1814.  The Colonel John B. Campbell I wrote about in the last post was mortally wounded at the Battle of Chippawa on July 5, 1814, and died August 28, 1814.


Wednesday, July 19, 2017

John B. Campbell and the War of 1812 on the Frontier-- Part 1: Attacks on Fort Wayne and Fort Harrison

From Mississinewa. 1812.  America's Most Exciting Living History Weekend-- At Mississinewa Battlefield, Marion, Indiana, October 13-15, 2017.


SEPTEMBER 3, 1812--  Shawnees led by Missilimeta attacked Pigeon Roost settlement in southern Indiana and killed 20 whites.

SEPTEMBER 6, 1812--  Indians attack Fort Wayne and Fort Harrison  (Terre Haute) in Indiana. The Americans repulse them and then attack Indian villages north of the Wabash River.


Tuesday, July 18, 2017

Campbell's Island in the Early 1900s to 1980-- Part 1

Campbell's Island was bought at the turn of the 20th century by a street car company which intended to build an amusement park on the island.  In 1904, a street car bridge was built on top of a closing dam built by the Army Corps of Engineers in 1899.

The island became a popular resort from then to the mid-1950s with cottages available for rent.

The House-In-the-Woods Inn operated from 1904-1911 when it burned down, but was rebuilt and renamed the Campbell Island Inn.  In the 1950s it became the Ship's Wheel Boat Club and operated until it burned down in 1979.


Defenses and Battles in Missouri, Iowa and Illinois Territories-- Part 2

4.  Fort Shelby, defeated 1814. Where the Wisconsin River flows into the Mississippi River at present-day Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.

5.  Battle of Rock Island Rapids, July 1814 and the Battle of Credit Island, September 1814, by the Quad Cities of Iowa and Illinois.

6.  Fort Johnson, abandoned 1814.  Where the Des Moines Rover joins the Mississippi River.

7.  Fort Cap au Gris and the Battle of Sinkhole, May 1815.  On the Mississippi River, a short distance above St. Louis.


Defenses in Missouri and Illinois Territories in War of 1812-- Part 1

From Wikipedia.

Map of the Upper Mississippi River in 1812, showing U.S. fortifications.

1.  Fort Bellefontaine, U.S. headquarters at St. Louis.

2.  Fort Osage on the Missouri River, west of St. Louis, abandoned 1813.

3.  Fort Madison, defeated 1813 (north of where the Des Monies River flows into the Mississippi).


Monday, July 17, 2017

Campbell's Island-- Part 2: An American Defeat

Three American gunboats were heading up the Mississippi River with military supplies for Fort Shelby at present day Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.  One of the boats had 42 people in it, including soldiers of the 1st U.S. Infantry regiment and their families.  The other two had 66 United States Rangers.

The Indians attacked and forced the Americans to turn back.  The Americans lost eight killed in the 1st U.S. Infantry and sixteen wounded.  Four Rangers were killed and eight wounded.

This defeat helped the Sauk Indians to maintain control over the Quad City area (Bettendorf and Davenport, Iowa, and Moline and Rock Island, Illinois) for almost twenty more years.

The Campbell's Island State Memorial was dedicated in 1908.


Friday, July 14, 2017

Campbell's Island-- Part 1: One of the Westernmost Battles

From Wikipedia.

Campbell's island is adjacent to the city of East Moline, Illinois and is connected to it by a bridge.  It is the site of the Campbell Island State Memorial, overseen by the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency.

During the War of 1812, it was the site of one of the western-most battles and is called the Battle of Rock Island Rapids.  A band of Sauk warriors, allied with Britain clashed here with an American force led by Lt. John Campbell of the 1st Regiment United States Infantry.


Thursday, July 13, 2017

Plaque Dedication for 'Widow' Cole in New York-- Part 2

The plaque reads:

"On September 26, 1812 and from this site, some of the first shots of the War of 1812 fired by local militia at armed soldiers from the British schooner Lady Prvost.

When a small boat carrying the soldiers from the British ship was sighted rowing in pursuit of an American salt barge that had taken refuge at the mouth of Canadaway Creek, local citizen Celea Sampson "Widow" Cole rode her horse to the settlement of Canadaway (Fredonia) to secure reinforcements.

"Recognized as a War of 1812 heroine for her efforts to spread the alarm, the "Widow" Cole reportedly also carried food and water to the militiamen and melted her pewter dishes to make bullets for their use during the attack."

A heroine.  --Brock-Perry

Plaque Dedication for 'Widow' Cole in Dunkirk NY-- Part 1

From the March 30, 2017, Observer "War of 1812 heroine:  Plaque dedication to be held for Celea Sampson 'Widow' Cole.

A plaque will be placed at the Dunkirk Lighthouse & Veterans Park Museum in Dunkirk, New York (along Lake Erie).  The State of New York Society, United States Daughters of 1812 will hold the dedication at 2 p.m., April 1, 2017.

Celea Cole was the wife of Seth Cole, the first settler in the Dunkirk area and a Revolutionary War soldier. He died in 1810.During the War of 1812, she served as a patrol to alarm neighbors of British attacks, fed soldiers stationed near her home.  She even melted her pewter dishes and teapot to make bullets.


Wednesday, July 12, 2017

General William Hull Invades Canada Today in 1812

Well, it all started off good enough and met with great success at first.

U.SA. forces led by General William Hull entered Canada during the War of 1812 against Britain.

Hull retreated back to Detroit shortly thereafter.

And, in August came the surprising surrender of his force.

A Major Debacle.  --Brock-Perry

Tuesday, July 11, 2017

Battle of Lundy's Lane

From Wikipedia.

This was where James Miller, who I have been writing about, gained his nickname, The Hero of Lundy's Lane.

Fought 25 July 1814 at present-day Niagara Falls, Ontario.  It was one of the bloodiest battles of the war and one of the deadliest events ever to take place in Canada.  It ended as a tactical draw, but a British strategic victory because the Americans suffered so many casualties.

The United States losses were 174 dead, 572 wounded, 79 captured and 28 missing, for a total of 853 casualties.  Two of the American commanders, Jacob brown and Winfield Scott were wounded and Eleazor Ripley was killed.

The British lost 84 killed, 559 wounded, 169 captured and 55 missing for a total of 878.

Forces engaged were 3,500 for Britain and 2,500 for the United States.


Monday, July 10, 2017

USS Louisiana (1812): The Battle of New Orleans

From Wikipedia.

Sloop of war built in New Orleans, launched 1812, broken up in 1821.

341 tons, 99 feet long, 28-foot beam.  Mounted sixteen 24-pdrs.

Originally built as a merchant ship for $15,510.

Commanded by Captain Charles C.B. Thompson.

From 23 December 1814, to January 8, 1815, fired on the advancing British troops in support of Andrew Jackson.

The lack of wind caused crew members to go ashore and they had to tow the ship upriver against the current.

Played a key role in the American victory at the Battle of New Orleans.