Wednesday, July 29, 2015

Fort Mackinac Celebrates 200 Years in American Hands

From the July 28, 2015, Great Lakes Echo by Kevin Lavery.

At the end of the War of 1812, the British fort on Mackinac Island was returned to the United States.  The Mackinac State Historic Parks system is currently celebrating the 200th anniversary of it.

The war played a huge role in shaping the territory which eventually became the state of Michigan.  The United Staes held the fort early in the war.  On July 17, 1812, British, Canadian and Indians captured it and held it until the war's end.

The U.S. got it back on July 18, 1815.


Tuesday, July 28, 2015

British Built Fort at Chattahoochee, Florida

From the July 27, 2015, WXTL Road Trip: The Beginnings of Chattahoochee" by Georgiaree Godfrey.

Gadsden County dates back to 1821, but the territory was occupied by Native Americans for centuries before that.

Historian Dale Cox said that the British built a fort there on top of the largest Indian mound and it was designed as a forward operating base for what became Fort Gadsden on the lower river,  They planned to use the fort as a launch on an invasion of Georgia during the War of 1812.

Later, Chattahoochee was home to a U.S. Arsenal which is now on the grounds of the Florida State Hospital.  The arsenal was built there because of the vast river system that reached all the way into northern Georgia.

The city's prime location on the Apalachicola River makes it a summer hot spot for boating, fishing and paddling.


Monday, July 27, 2015

War of 1812 Exhibit Visits Paris, Tennessee

From the July 21, 2015, Paris (Tn.) Post-Intelligencer "War of 1812 exhibit to visit Paris.

This war is why Tennessee is called the Volunteer State.  A traveling exhibit will be shown at the Paris-Henry County Heritage Center July 31 through September 12 at 614 N. Poplar Street in Paris.  It is entitled "Becoming the Volunteer State: Tennessee in the War of 1812."

Many Tennesseeans played prominent roles in it, including Andrew Jackson, David Crockett, David Farragut, Sam Houston and Sequoyah.

Tennesseeans were among the "War Hawks" who were Americans who wanted to go to war with Britain.


Saturday, July 25, 2015

Marking the True End of the War of 1812 on Mackinac Island

From the July 18, 2015, Toledo News "Snyder, others marking War of 1812-related bicentennial" by Jeff Karous, AP.

Michigan Governor Rick Snyder and others are helping mark the bicentennial of the true end in the War of 1812 on Mackinac Island.

The ceremony was held July 18th at Marquette Park near Fort Mackinac and featured a peace garden dedication.

The event marked the 200th anniversary of the British withdrawal from the island after the war had officially ended months earlier.They had recaptured the fort in 1812 with the help of hundreds on Indians in one of the war's earliest operations.

The Battle of Mackinac Island, which took a month, came two years later.

So, It Didn't End With the Treaty of Ghent.  --Brock-Perry

Friday, July 24, 2015

War of 1812 Veterans' Graves in Fredericton Get Plaques

From the July 23, 2015, CBC News.

The graves of seven veterans of the war who fought for Britain now have had their graves marked with special plaques in Fredericton's Old burying Ground.  They were all members of the 104th Regiment stationed in the town during the war.

The 104th Regiment made the epic march from \Fredericton to Kingston in the winter of 1813 also served along the Niagara Frontier that year and returned to winter quarters in Kingston.

Most of these men were veterans of that march which took six weeks under harsh conditions.

Veterans receiving the plaques:

Lt.Col. Harris William Hailes
Capt. John Allen
Lt. William Barry  Phair
Capt. Andrew William Rainsford
Lt. James Augustus MacLauchlan
Capt. John Jenkins
Capt. eorge Shore

Kind of strange that all were officers.


Thursday, July 23, 2015

Ohio's George Washington Barrere

From the July 22, 2015, Highland County Press "Ghost Stories: George Washington Barrere, a man of many hats" by Susan Roush.

He and his family settled in Highland County 212 years ago, arriving in 1802.  The county was founded until 1805.  When Ohio became a state in 1803, he was appointed justice of the peace and then was elected state senator in 1805.

During the War of 1812 he was the captain of a company and after the war was an associate judge for 14 years.  His company served with the Second regiment under the command of Col. James Findlay of Cincinnati.

James Findlay was mayor of Cincinnati from 1805-1806 and 1810-1811.  After he became a major general, Findlay built Fort Findlay at the site of present-day Findlay, Ohio.

George Barrere's company rendezvoused in Dayton and marched north to Manardy's Blockhouse and from there to Detroit, Michigan where they witnessed the U.S. surrender of Detroit.  Not only witnessed, but captured.  But being volunteers, he and his company were allowed to return home.


Wednesday, July 22, 2015

General Peter Porter Receives American Flag

From the July 21, 2015, Lockport (NY) Union-Sun & Journal "War of 1812 general honored."

Elfreda Stangland, president of the Niagara Frontier Chapter U.S. Daughters of 1812, recently placed an American flag on the grave of Gen. Peter Porter on behalf of the chapter.

Porter was given the Congressional Gold Medal for "gallantry and good conduct" during the War of 1812, at the Battle of Chippewa, the Battle of Niagara and Battle of Erie.  His grave is located within an iron fence at Oakwood Cemetery in Niagara Falls

The cemetery office has a replica of the congressional medal.

There are a lot of other famous people buried in the cemetery.


Monday, July 20, 2015

Known U.S. Naval Officers Who Served in North Carolina

From N.C. in the War of 1812.

All of these men were stationed in Wilmington.

E.D. Morrison--  surgeon's mate
Julius Humphreys--  midshipman
William Jaspar--  midshipman
Joseph Spiknall--  midshipman
John Mooney--  sailing master
James Moore--  gunner


Sunday, July 19, 2015

Three Unforgettable Sounds from the War of 1812

From the June 4, 2015, Lebanon Daily News by Bruce Kauffman.

1.  Anything from that poem, later set to music, from amateur poet Francis Scott Key, but especially "Oh Say Can You See."

2.  "Don't Give Up the Ship"  spoken by James Lawrence in the battle between the USS Chesapeake and HMS Shannon.

3.  "We Have Met the Enemy and They Are Ours" written by Oliver Hazard Perry after the victory at the Battle of Lake Erie.  He flew the words of #2 from his flagship the USS Lawrence.


Saturday, July 18, 2015

North Carolina's War Governor, William Hawkins-- Part 2

A strong supporter of the federal government during the war and assisted in raising an additional volunteer militia of nearly 7,000.

Even though he supported the war effort, he believed the national government ignored his state.

At the beginning of the war, the state had less than 10,000 militia.  Madison asked for 7,000 militia troops from N.C. and they were sent.  Many of these were of Scotch descent.

In July 1813, British Admiral George Cockburn had nearly 100 ships off the N.C. coast at Ocracoke.  It was feared an attack on New Bern was forthcoming.

Hawkins routinely surveyed the state's coastal defenses.


North Carolina's War Governor, William Hawkins-- Part 1

From Wikipedia.

This is the man who took a particular interest in Fort Hampton.

William Hawkins, governor of North Carolina during the War of 1812.

Born 1777, died May 17, 1819.  17th governor, serving from 1811 to 1814.Born on the Pleasant Hill Plantation in Vance County, N.C..  Studied law at Princeton and worked two years in Georgia as the Creek Indian agent.

Returned to N.C. to practice law in 1801.  Elected governor by the North Carolina General Assembly in 1811  He served terms that ran concurrent with the War of 1812.


Colonel James Welborn of N.C.-- Part 2

From Stopping

James Welborn had risen to the rank of brigadier general in the N.C. militia by the time of the War of 1812 but resigned to become a colonel in the regular U.S. Army.  As such, his main responsibility was to recruit and train soldiers from North Carolina and surrounding states.

He returned to public service after the war.  In 1992, the Carolina Glue Chip Company in Wilkesboro was charged with misdemeanor grave desecration after building their plant on top of the Welborn Cemetery where James was buried.


Friday, July 17, 2015

Colonel (General) James Welborn-- Part 1

From Stopping

James Welborn was appointed general in the N.C. militia after the Revolutionary War  He served 27 years as a state senator between 1796 and 1833.  While a senator he made great efforts to have the state build a turnpike from the mountains to the sea, but failed to get it passed.

he was buried at his plantation, "The Bends" about three miles west of Wilkesboro.  There is a report that the cemetery was subsequently destroyed.


Back to N.C.'s Fort Hampton-- Part 2: General James Welborn

Back on June 18th, I mentioned that most North Carolinian soldiers during the War of 1812 were folded into the U.S. Army's 10th Regiment under Col. James Welborn of Wilkes County who had resigned his commission as general in the N.C. militia in order to join the regular army.

From Find-a-Grave.

General James Welborn.  Born Nov. 29, 1767 in Randolph County, N.C. and died Dec. 4, 1854 in Wilkesboro, N.C..  He is buried in the Welborn Cemetery.

There is a N.C. highway marker for him which reads:

"Served 27 years as state senator; Colonel in the War of 1812; delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1835.  Grave is 1/5 mile N."


Back to North Carolina's Fort Hampton-- Part 1: Recruiting for the Army in the State

From N.C. War of 1812.

It's been awhile since I've been writing about this fort as I have been covering Michigan's Fort Gratiot, which was designed by Charles Gratiot, the same man who engineered Fort Hampton.  Then, of course, I wrote some about the Salt Battery at Youngstown, New York, along what was called the Niagara Frontier during the war.

Many of the soldiers serving at Fort Hampton were from North Carolina.

U.S. Army Major William S. Hamilton was appointed to the rank of colonel and placed in charge of recruiting for the state of North Carolina.

Col.Hamilton considered it an opportunity for those with "a pure spirit and sacred impulse."  He promised he would equip volunteers into the U.S. Army in "Rifle dress and give you your favorite weapon, and you will cover yourselves with glory."

Pay for the enlistees ran from $8 to $12 a month, plus they would get a $124 bounty for enlisting and 160 acres of land when the war was over.

This land, of course, was in the west and went a long way toward getting new settlers to the frontier areas.


Thursday, July 16, 2015

General George Meade at Fort Gratiot

George Meade, who later achieved fame for winning the pivotal Battle of Gettysburg during the Civil War was at Fort Gratiot in 1857.  He relieved Lt.Col. James Kearney on the Lakes Survey Mission on the Great Lakes.

Meade completed the survey on Lake Huron.


Fort Gratiot Reactivated for the 1827 Winnebago War

From Wikipedia.

The Winnebago War of 1827 took place in the Upper Mississippi area, principally in what is today Wisconsin.  It was not really a war, actually just a few attacks on American civilians by members of the Winnebago (Ho-Chunk) Indian tribe.

Most of the Indians in the region didn't join in the fight and the Ho-Chunk were forced to cede the lead mining region to the United States.


Wednesday, July 15, 2015

Exterior Work on Fort Gratiot Hospital Nearly Completed-- Part 2

Baker College of Port Huron, Michigan, has given $10,000 to the project as they are building student housing on what was once the Fort Gratiot Military Reservation.  Overall, the project had raised $41,000 and it is expected another $10-12,000 will be needed to complete it.

The fort was built in 1814 and engineered by Charles Gratiot.  After it was abandoned by the Army for awhile, it was reopened during the Winnebago War of 1827 and it also experienced the start of the cholera epidemic of 1832.

Several officers who later achieved fame during the Civil War were posted there over the years leading to the war.  Probably the most famous was Army of the Potomac commander George Gordon Meade, the victor at the Battle of Gettysburg.


Exterior Work on Fort Gratiot Hospital Nearly Completed-- Part 1

From the April 14, 2015, Times Herald by Bob Gross.

The building is now sheathed in a moisture barrier of what is considered the oldest wooden structure in St. Clair County which is now nearing restoration.  Its windows are being made and the front porch is being constructed.

The work is being overseen by the Fort Gratiot Hospital Heritage Committee.

The hospital was built in 1829 and had space for the post surgeon and a hospital ward.  After the fort was finally shut down in 1879, it was moved and split in two.  It was then located on St. Clair Street.

Port Huron bought the two houses were bought by Port Huron in 2002 and reunited them at the city's Lighthouse Park adjacent to the Fort Gratiot Light Station County Park.


Monday, July 13, 2015

Salt Battery's Armament

I have been unable to find out how many cannons were mounted at the Salt Battery or what their calibers were.