Saturday, December 31, 2016

Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 36: General John Wood



Buried at Texas State Cemetery.

Born Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

During the War of 1812, he was a lieutenant-colonel in Claiborn's Regiment of Mississippi Militia.

He was also a veteran of the Texas Revolution.

Died in Austin, Travis County.

The Augustus Jones chapter of the U.S. Daughters of 1812 placed a marker on his grave.

Note:  There is no evidence that he is buried there.


Friday, December 30, 2016

Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 35 Reverend Silas Witt

I came across this man and another one in my 1812 logs.  I was writing about the Texas War of 1812 veterans buried in that state last month.


May 28, 1787 to July 15, 1881

Buried at Old Perry Cemetery in Moody, Texas.

Born in Dandridge, Tennessee in Jefferson County.  Married July 28, 1812 in Jefferson County, Tennessee.

Survived by 14 children, including 10 sons.

His marker reads: Private Tennessee Militia.


Thursday, December 29, 2016

Henderson County Also Named for Col. James Henderson of the War of 1812

From the Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture.

Henderson County was created in West Tennessee by an act of the Tennessee legislature on November 7, 1821, and named for Colonel James Henderson, who served under Andrew Jackson and commanded Tennessee troops at the Battle of New Orleans.

Several of the county's early settlers also served under Henderson's command during the war and during the Natchez and Creek campaigns.

A Lot of War of 1812 Connection in Tennessee.  --Brock-Perry

Wednesday, December 28, 2016

Chester County's County Seat, Henderson, Also Named for War of 1812 Veteran

The county seat, Henderson, was founded along the Mobile and Ohio Railroad line in the late 1850s and first known as Dayton.  In 1860 Polk Bray opened the town's first store.

The town's name was later changed to Henderson Station, and finally to  just Henderson shortly before the Civil War.  This was done to honor Colonel James Henderson, a veteran of the War of 1812.

So the County and County Seat Named for War of 1812 Veterans.  --Brock-Perry

Tuesday, December 27, 2016

Chester County, Tennessee

From the Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture.

Chester County is the last county formed in Tennessee in March 1879.

It was named for Colonel Robert I. Chester, a quartermaster in the War of 1812,  He was also an early postmaster in Jackson and a federal marshal for the Western District.


Colonel Robert I. Chester

I have been writing about Chester County, Tennessee being named after War of 1812 veteran Robert I Chester.

From the Sketches of Prominent Tennesseeans.

Born in Carlisle County, Pennsylvania, in 1793.  came to Tennessee and volunteered to serve in the War of 1812 in place of his uncle, Judge John Kennedy.  Served in Mobile as quartermaster of Colonel Samuel Bayliss' Third Tennessee Regiment.

Mustered into service October 14, 1814, at Knoxville with the men destined to join Jackson at New Orleans.

Two regiments, the 3rd and 4th, built boats at Washington in Rhea County and were set to descend the Tennessee River to the Mississippi River.  But that order was countermanded and they marched overland to Mobile where they were stationed until peace was declared in March 1815.

He became a very rich plantation owner and went to Texas and was made a colonel in the Texas Army fighting for independence.  He returned to Tennessee after the Texan victory at the Battle of San Jacinto.

Death came to him in 1892.


Monday, December 26, 2016

Tennessee's William Carroll-- Part 2: War of 1812 Service

William Carroll gained his military reputation during the War of 1812.  He organized and served as captain of a volunteer company.  Andrew Jackson appointed him brigade inspector for the campaigns to Natchez in 1812 and against the Creek Indians in 1813.

On the 1813 campaign, he participated in several battles before sustaining a severe wound during Jackson's victory at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.  Even with this severe wound, Carroll returned to the field and assumed command of the Tennessee militia, after Jackson was promoted to major general in the regular army.

Carroll's troops provided Jackson with crucial reinforcements which helped him win the Battle of New Orleans.

Because of his contributions at New Orleans, Carroll came out of the war with a reputation second only to that of Jackson himself.


Friday, December 23, 2016

Tennessee's William Carroll: War of 1812 and Governor-- Part 1

From the Tennessee Encyclopedia of History & Culture.


War of 1812 veteran and served as state governor for all but two years between 1821 and 1835.

Born near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and was oldest son of Thomas Carroll who was an associate of Albert Gallatin, Secretary of the Treasury for Presidents Jefferson and Madison.

He came to Nashville in 1810, at age 22, with a letter from Gallatin to Andrew Jackson he used to establish connections to open a hardware store and nail factory.  These businesses were very successful and he rose to the forefront of the town's development.

In 1816,he purchased the General Jackson, the first steamboat on the Cumberland River.

His War of 1812 Service Next.  --Brock-Perry

Tennessee's Governor Willie Blount-- Part 6

At the end of his third term, Blount returned to Montgomery County.  In 1827, he ran for governor, but was defeated by Sam Houston.  Blount served as a member of the state's Constitutional Convention in 1834.

He died September 10, 1835, in Nashville and is buried at Greenwood Cemetery in Clarksville.


Thursday, December 22, 2016

Tennessee's Governor Willie Blount-- Part 5: War of 1812 Governor

Blount was first elected governor in 1809 and then re-elected in 1811 and 1813.  Throughout his tenure as governor, Blount sought to open new areas of Tennessee to white settlement.  During the Creek War, he provided his friend Andrew Jackson with funds and volunteer soldiers, which enabled Jackson and his troops to effectively destroy the military power of the Creek Indians.

During the War of 1812, Blount led the initiative to raise over $37,000 in funds and 2,000 volunteer soldiers, which earned Tennessee the nickname "Volunteer State."


Tennessee's Governor Willie Blount-- Part 4

From the Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture.

WILLIE BLOUNT (ca 1767-1835)

Governor, was born in Bertie County, North Carolina, to Jacob Blount.  He was half-brother to Tennessee's territorial Governor, William Blount.  Willie (pronounced Wiley) Blount studied law at Princeton and Columbia before returning home to read law with a North Carolina judge.

When William Blount began his term as governor of the Southwest Territory in 1790, Willie accompanied him to Tennessee, serving as one of his brother's three private secretaries.

In 1794, he secured a license to practice law and in 1796, the new state legislature elected him as a judge on the Superior Court of Law and Equity, a position he declined.

He settled in Montgomery County about 1802 with his wife and two daughters, and represented the county in the state legislature from 1807 to 1809.


Wednesday, December 21, 2016

Tennessee Governor Willie Blount-- Part 3:

The War of 1812 took place during Willie Blount's second and third terms as governor.  During the first months of the war, he struggled with a  lack of communication with the U.S. War Department and waited for permission to order his state militia south to New Orleans.

Following the Fort Mimms Massacre, in Alabama, north of Mobile, in 1813, he issued a call to arms and 3,500 Tennesseeans answered it.  All this support earned Tennessee its nickname "Volunteer State."

Blount then raised $300,000 to fund the expedition.  This force was divided into two divisions and ordered south.  This ended with the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.

This success made him very popular with the people of Tennessee after the war.


Tuesday, December 20, 2016

Tennessee Governor Willie Blount-- Part 2: Supporter of the War of 1812

Born in North Carolina of wealthy parents, he attended the current Princeton and Columbia universities before becoming a North Carolina lawyer.  His older half-brother, William Blount became the governor of the Southwest Territory and Willie accompanied him there which is how he came to live in Tennessee.

He became governor in 1809.

With the troubles with the Indians, brought about a fair amount by British interference and his citizens' desire to push into Indian lands, it is no surprise that Governor Blount was a big supporter of the war.

His efforts to raise funds and soldiers in the War of 1812 helped earn Tennessee its nickname "Volunteer State."


Tennessee Governor Willie Blount-- Part 1

From Wikipedia.

Born April 18, 1768, at Blount Hall in Bertie County, North Carolina.  Died September 18, 1835.

Governor of Tennessee from 1809 to 1815.

He spent much of his early tenure as governor dealing with hostilities between Indians and white settlers.  He constantly sought to acquire land from the Cherokees and Chickasaws while fighting the hostile Choctows and Creeks.

At one point, early in his governorship he suggested to Washington, D.C., that the Cherokees be removed to west of the Mississippi, something later carried out by President Andrew Jackson.


Camp Blount, Tennessee-- Part 3: Mustering Point for Other Wars

Camp Blount served as the mustering grounds for other wars than the War of 1812.

Tennessee troops mustered here for the Seminole Wars of 1818 and 1836.  Later they did the same for the Civil War.

It is likely that both Confederate and Union troops mustered here during the Civil War, though, obviously, not at the same time.


Sunday, December 18, 2016

Camp Blount, Tennessee-- Part 2: Mustering to Fight the Creeks

From the July 16, 2013, Elk Valley (Tn.) Times.

During the War of 1812, the Tennessee state government issued a call for volunteers.  Some 3,500 Tennesseeans responded, earning them the state nickname "Volunteers."    The reason for this muster  was that the Creek Indians had attacked Fort Mims and massacred 250 men, women and children.

The soldiers were ordered here by Tennessee Governor Willie Blount.  They trained under the leadership of Andrew Jackson, then major general of Tennessee militia.  Most of the men who reported were from middle Tennessee.

They left Camp Blount oin October 1813.  Less than a year later, the troops again mustered at Camp Blount and this time marched to New Orleans.


Friday, December 16, 2016

Camp Blount, Tennessee-- Part 1

From Tennessee Historical Marker.

This is in conjunction with blog entries on Sam Houston posted Nov. 22 and 23, 2015, in this blog.

In September 1813, the Army of West Tennessee assembled at Camp Blount on the Elk River.  It took the Oath of Allegiance on October 7.  Major General Andrew Jackson arrived at Fayetteville to take command of the army which included Sam Houston and David Crockett.

The Army then marched to Alabama and defeated the Creek Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.

The marker on the site of Camp Blount is at US-231/US-431 in Fayetteville, Tennessee, behind the River Oak Shopping Center.


Wednesday, December 14, 2016

39th U.S. Infantry

From the NPS.

First Muster, June 18, 1813:  John Williams, colonel; Thomas H. Benton lt.-col.

Others in July 29, 1813:

1st Majhor--  Lemuel P. Montgomery
2nd Major--  William Peacock
1st. Lt. and adjutant--  Willie Martin
2nd Lt. and quartermaster--  Gyt Smith
Surgeon's Mate--  John Reed
Sgt. Major--  Anthony Palmer
2nd Master Sergeant--  Ezekial W. Hudnall
Drum Major--  Edward Hunt


Monday, December 12, 2016

Thomas Hart Benton-- Part 2: Got Into Brawl With Jackson

From Wikipedia.

Born March 14, 1782   Died April 10, 1858.

Thomas Hart Benton moved his family to a plantation in Tennessee, near Nashville, and continued his legal education.  While there, he came to know Andrew Jackson.

With the outbreak of the War of 1812, Jackson made Benton his aide-de-camp with the rank of lieutenant-colonel.  Jackson then assigned Benton to go to Washington, D.C., to represent his interests there.  Benton did not like this assignment.

In 1813, he engaged Jackson in a frontier brawl in which Jackson was wounded.


Friday, December 9, 2016

Thomas Hart Benton in the War of 1812

From the Civil War in Missouri.

Thomas Hart Benton was born into a wealthy Virginia family in 1782 and later moved to Tennessee.

During the War of 1812, he offered his services to Col. Andrew Jackson who made him his aide-de-camp.  Benton engaged the Creek Indians but really wanted to fight the British.  He would get that chance with Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans.

He was so proud of that, that for years afterwards he signed his correspondence "Lieutenant Colonel. 39th Infantry."

In 1815, he moved to Missouri Territory.


Wednesday, December 7, 2016

This Is No Drill! Pearl Harbor 75 Years Later: Gene Reinhardt, U.S. Army

From the December 4, 2016, Shelby (NC) Star "Pearl Harbor survivor from Gaston County part of a dwindling breed"  by Michael Barrett.

Gene Reinhardt, 95.

Enlisted in the Army after dropping out of Shelby High School in 1940.  Was a technician fifth grade and oversaw radio and telephone communications on Oahu.  Schofield Barracks was 15 miles away and Wheeler Army Airfield much closer and a major target of the Japanese pilots.

After Pearl Harbor he transferred to Australia and participated in many landings in the Pacific Theater, including New Guinea.  Discharged 1945.

Officials are not sure how many Pearl Harbor veterans remain, but in 2013, it was estimated their numbers to be between 2,000 and 2,500.

True American Heroes.

Tuesday, December 6, 2016

Andrew Keown, Veteran of America's Forgotten War-- Part 2

The Illinois Society of the War of 1812 held a ceremony on October 23 and unveiled a marker.  Seventy attended, including many of his descendants.

Andrew Keown was born April 11, 1793, in Butler County, Kentucky, and served as a private in Lt.-Colonel William Mitchusson's 14th Regiment of Kentucky Militia.  He came to Illinois in 1819, but returned to Kentucky before bring his family back in 1825.  He started receiving a War of 1812 pension in 1871 until his death.

Death came on February 20, 1880 at the age of 86.


Andrew Keown, Veteran of America's Forgotten War-- Part 1

From the October 26, 2016, Bellevue (Illinois) News-Democrat "Veteran of America's 'forgotten war' is remembered' by Curt Libbra.

Andrew Keown was with Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812 on January 8, 1815 as a member of the Kentucky militia.

He returned to Kentucky after the war and married.  Eventually, he and his family moved to Illinois, purchased land and raised a family.

He died in 1880 at the age of 86.   Burial took place in the Vincent Cemetery between Alhambra and Livingston.  The cemetery was neglected over the years and became overgrown as well as a dumping ground.  The cemetery has now been restored.


Ohio War of 1812 Veteran John Funk-- Part 2

Officers, NCOs and musicians in Captain Thomas Morgan's Company from Scioto County, Ohio.

Capt. Thomas Morgan
Lt.  James Emerson
Ensign James McLain
Ensign John Clemus

Sergt. Nathaniel Barber
Sergt. Samuel Wilson
Sergt. George Weider
Sergt. Job Goslee
Sergt. Isaac Johnston

Corp. James Dawson
Corp. Jesse Martin
Corp. William Sullivan
Corp. Thomas Lasborough
Corp. James Furnace
Corp. John Thebus

Fifer John Funk
Drummer Isaac Wheeler

There were also 84 privates.


Monday, December 5, 2016

Ohio War of 1812 Veteran John Funk Honored-- Part 1

From the December 1, 2016, Community Common (Ohio).

John Funk was a fifer in Captain Thomas Morgan's Company from Ross and Scioto counties, Ohio,  and served in the militia twice.  The first time from July 28 to September 9, 1812 and second from February 13 to March 18, 1814.

He was born March 30, 1790, in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania and died February 18, 1859, in Portsmouth, Scioto County, Ohio.

Members of the Scioto Valley Volunteers (SW) Chapter, United States Daughters of the War of 1812, Ohio Society, are planning a grave marking ceremony for John Funk in the next several weeks.


Monument Hill: Texas State Historic Site

Located south of LaGrange, Texas.

On September 18, 1848, the remains of Texans killed at the Dawson Massacre and the Black Bean Episode were buried in a ceremony at this site.  Their remains were dug up from the shallow grave they were buried in in 1842 and reinterred here.

They are in a common tomb in a sandstone vault and the location is now known as Monument Hill.

Over 1,000 attended it, including U.S. Senator Sam Houston.

The monument itself is quite impressive.


The Dawson Massacre-- Part 3: Reinternment

Mathew Caldwell, in the meantime, had defeated the Mexicans in the Battle of Salado Creek and found the dead of Nicholas Dawson's command buried in a shallow grave.

In late summer 1848 (after Texas had become a U.S. State), a group of LaGrange citizens retrieved the remains of Dawson's men and reinterned them at Monument Hill, Texas.


Saturday, December 3, 2016

The Dawson Massacre-- Part 2: Surrendered, But Fighting Continued

On September 11, 1842, the Mexican Army occupied San Antonio.  Matthew Caldwell organized 210 militia and marched against them.  On September 17, he sent a small band of Rangers to San Antonio to draw the Mexicans out.

A separate company of 54 Texans, mostly from the Fayette County area, under the command of Nicholas Dawson arrived and advanced on the Mexicans.  After much fighting, they were surrounded by the larger Mexican force and surrendered.

But, the fighting continued and Dawson and 36 Texans were killed in the ensuing action.  Fifteen were captured and two escaped.  Zadock Woods was one of the dead.  Son Henry Woods managed a daring escape and son Norman was severely wounded, captured and died while imprisoned in Mexico.

Zadock Woods was buried in a mass grave, but was dug up and reinterred six years later at Monument Hill, Texas.


The Dawson Massacre in Texas-- Part 1: Near San Antonio

From Wikipedia.

Back on November 25th, while doing Texas War of 1812 veterans, I mentioned that Zadock Woods was killed at what is called the Dawson Massacre in 1842.  I did some more research on it.

Looks like we'll get some more Texas history.

It is also referred to as the Dawson Expedition.  Where 36 Texas militia were killed by Mexican soldiers on September 17, 1842.  (Find-A-Grave lists Zadock Woods as being killed on September 18, 1842).  It took place near San Antonio de Bexar, Texas, now San Antonio, Texas.

It was a part of the larger Battle of Salado Creek.

After Texas declared its independence, there was a quarrel over area between the Rio Grande and Nueces rivers.  Texas claimed everything to the Rio Grande but lacked the military power to hold it, resulting in Mexican military incursions.


Friday, December 2, 2016

The History of the Republic of Texas

After writing the blogs about the War of 1812 Texas Veterans, I'd have to say I really came up with a how and why history for the Republic of Texas and early years as a state.  And, I just used a small fraction of the ones listed in Texas 1812 Veterans site of Find-A-Grave.

Many of the men came from Southern states, with several moving to the colonies that wer being built.  They fought against th Mexicans in the Texas Revolution as well as the Indians..  Most did not die during the War of 1812 and did many years later.


The Grave of Moses Austin

From Find-A-Grave.

Moses Austin is  buried at the Potosi Presbyterian Cemetery in Potosi, Missouri.  He was first buried at Hazel Run and then moved to the Potosi Presbyterian Cemetery.

His grave was covered with cement to keep Texans from stealing the body.


Austinville, Virginia

From Wikipedia.

In the earlier posts on Moses Austin, I mentioned the town of Austinville, Virginia, which was named after Moses Austin.

An unincorporated community in New River in southern Wythe County, Virginia.  New River State Park is there as is the Shot Tower Historical State Park which is nearby.

Stephen F. Austin was born here.

I have driven by the Shot Tower often on I-77, but never stopped.  Hey, lead in those shoy.


Moses Austin-- Part 3: Another Failed Business and Texas Colonization

Moses Austin became founder and principal stockholder of the Bank of St. Louis, but that failed in the Panic of 1819 and he lost his entire fortune.  This most likely is where Zadock Woods ended up losing his money.  Them, Moses became involved in the colonization of Texas.

He died in 1821 of pneumonia and is buried in Potosi, Missouri.


Thursday, December 1, 2016

Moses Austin-- Part 2: Failed Business and On To Missouri

Moses Austin then moved to southwest Virginia and got into the lead business in Wythe County.  He and his brother Stephen (namesake of his son) and others industrialized the area, building several smelters and furnaces.  The small village that grew up there became known as Austinville and Moses got the name of the "Lead King."

But, he incurred debts and his company collapsed and Moses skipped out of the state to avoid imprisonment.  His next stop was Missouri for its rich lead deposits, but it was then part of Spanish Louisiana.  In 1798, he was granted land in return for declaring allegiance to the Spanish Crown.

In 1803, Missouri became part of the United States as a result of the Louisiana Purchase.


Wednesday, November 30, 2016

Moses Austin: Land Grant to Set Up American Colony in Texas

From Wikipedia.

October 4, 1761-June 10, 1821.

Back on November 23rd, I wrote about Zadock Woods being financially destroyed through business dealings with Moses Austin, who I then found out was the father of Texas' Stephen F. Austin.

American businessman and major mover in the development of the U.S. lead industry, father of Stephen F. Austin.

In 1820, Moses Austin received a land grant from the Spanish Crown and planned to establish an Anglo-American settlement in Spanish Texas, but died before his dream was realized.  On his death bed he pleaded for his son, Stephen F. Austin, to continue with the dream and he did.

Moses Austin was born in Durham, Connecticut and moved to Philadelphia in 1784, and then to Richmond, Virginia, where he married Mary Brown, from an affluent iron mining family.  His second child, Stephen F. Austin, was born in 1793.


Monday, November 28, 2016

Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 34: Young, Acker and Adams

JOHN YOUNG  Feb. 13, 1795 (May 16, 1879)  Buried Davenport Cemetery in Bexar, Texas.

Born in Knox County, Tennessee.  Died in San Antonio.

JOSEPH ACKER (September 16, 1774-August 8, 1856)  Buried at Holly Springs Cemetery in Maydelle, Texas.

His War of 1812 marker lists him as a private in the Tennessee militia.    Born in Virginia.

LEMMUEL ALLEN ADAMS--  (1795-1892) Buried in Peatown Cemetery, Lakeport, Texas.

Came to Texas about 1840.  Has a War of 1812 marker on his grave which says he was a private in the Tennessee militia.

There Are Many More Listed in the Texas 1812 Veterans Site.  --Brock-Perry

Friday, November 25, 2016

Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 33: Zadock Woods

In 1842, Zadock Woods and two of his sons, joined a force from Fayette County recruited by Captain Nicholas M. Dawson to fight with Matthew Caldwell's forces at Salada Creek.  On September 18, Zadock Woods was killed in a skirmish that became known as the Dawson Massacre.

His son Henry managed a daring escape, but son Norman was severely wounded.  He was captured and died at Perote Prison in Mexico.

Zadock Woods was buried in a mass grave by Salada Creek, but his body was dug up and reinterred 6 years later at Monument Hill.


Thursday, November 24, 2016

Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 32: Zadock Woods: Dealing With the Austins

Zadock Woods was financially ruined in Missouri as a result of a business venture with Moses Austin, he joined Stephen Austin's Texas Colony in 1824.  he is listed as one of Stephen F. Austin's Old Three Hundred.

I got interested in this first sentence in the relationship between Moses and Stephen Austin.  Was he perhaps a brother.  I looked him up, and Moses Austin was the father of Stephen F. Austin.

Zadock Woods settled first in Matagordo County and later moved north on the Colorado River to Fayette County.

There, his home near West Point, was called Woods Fort (or Woods Prairie) where it became a safe haven for settlers against Indian raids.


Wednesday, November 23, 2016

Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 31: Zadock Woods

ZADOCK WOODS  September 18, 1773-September 18, 1842

Buried at Monument Hill Cemetery, LaGrange, Texas.

Born in Brookfield, Massachusetts.  Married Minerva Cottle.  Moved to Missouri about 1802 and established a "fort" at Woodville, near Troy, Missouri.

During the War of 1812, Zachary Taylor garrisoned at Woods Fort and Zadock Woods later served with Jackson at New Orleans.


Tuesday, November 22, 2016

Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 30: James Washington Winters

James Sr. and son Benjamin hauled supplies to the San Jacinto Battlefield in 1836 where his sons William Carver, John F. and James W. Winters, Jr., were in the action in General Sidney Sherman's Second Regiment and Captain William Ware's Company.  William Carver Winters was wounded in the battle.

His brother brought him home to Old Waverly where he recovered.

The three Winter brothers at San Jacinto all received Bounty and Donation Land Grants for their service.  Their names are engraved on the bronze panel inside the San Jacinto Monument.


Monday, November 21, 2016

Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 29: James Washington Winters

As a young man, he moved to Tennessee where he met and married Rhoda Beal and lived in Memphis.

With the coming of the War of 1812, he enlisted in Andrew Jackson's West Tennessee Militia and was in Thomas McCrory's regiment until 1814.  He fought at the Battle of Talladega and the Battle of Horseshoe Bend where he met a young man named Sam Houston and they became friends.

In 1835, he met Sam Houston again in San Antonio where he and his three sons joined Stephen F. Austin's army.  The two men renewed their War of 1812 friendship and traded stories.


Friday, November 18, 2016

Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 28: James Washington Winters, Sr. To Texas

From "the Family of James Washington Winters, Sr." by Pauline Winters McCullough.

He started the Texas branch of the Winters family.  He was a War of 1812 veteran who left Tennessee in a covered wagon with his family in August 1834 and arrived in Nacodoches in December where he received the title to an original Spanish land grant and the same year held a headright certificate to the land that eventually became the town of Old Waverly.

Old Waverly is essentially a ghost town today, near New Waverly, Texas.  All that remains is a cemetery and a Presbyterian church.

James W. Winters' father was Thomas J. Winters, who served 84 months in George Washington's Continental Army.  The home where James was born in 1773, in Halifax, North Carolina, was robbed by Tories during the American Revolution.


Thursday, November 17, 2016

Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 27: Private James Washington Winters, Sr.


Buried at Winters Memorial Park, New Waverly, Texas.

Born in Halifax County, North Carolina.  Private in Col. T. McCrory's Regiment in War of 1812.

Col. Thomas McCrory's regiment was the 2nd Regiment West Tennessee Militia.  served October 1813 to January 1814.  Part of General Isaac Roberts Second Brigade.  Fought at the Battle of Talladega on 9 November 1813.

They had enlisted for just three months and General Jackson tried to get them to stay, but only 20 men did.


Wednesday, November 16, 2016

Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 26: Samuel Wilson

SAMUEL WILSON (June 7, 1772-November 15, 1862)

Buried in Mustang Cemetery in Shiro, Texas, which has 175 internments.

His marker there lists him as a member of the 3rd Infantry of the Georgia Militia.

Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 25: Stephen Williams

STEPHEN WILLIAMS (1786-July 2, 1846)

Born in Granville County, North Carolina.  Died Fayette County, Texas and buried in the Williams Cemetery, located on the Williams farm which has a total of seven internments.

A veteran of the War of 1812 who followed the major migration to Georgia and then Alabama before coming to Texas in 1832.  He received a land grant in 1843.  he was an ardent Baptist and did a lot for his church in its growth in Texas.

He married in 1810 in Wilkes County, Georgia.


Tuesday, November 15, 2016

Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 24: 155 Listed

These are just the last page of the Texas 1812 Veterans Find-A-Grave page.  Going from John S. Roberts to John Young.  There are a total of 155 names listed.


Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 23: John Whitehorn and Hezekiah Williams III

JOHN McGLAMERY WHITEHORN (Feb. 5, 1795-March 25, 1870)

Buried in Hallsville Cemetery in Hallsville, Texas.


Buried at the Amos Barber Cemetery in Mont Belvieu, Texas.  Listed as a War of 1812 veteran in Texas.


Monday, November 14, 2016

Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 22: James Taylor White

JAMES TAYLOR WHITE (July 28, 1789-March 5, 1852)

Buried at the White Cemetery in Monroe City, Texas.

Born in Louisiana and became a big cattleman.  In 1840 he owned 4,605 acres with 1,775 head of cattle and 45 horses.  He was known as "The Cattle King" of southeast Texas.

He died of cholera nine days before his wife died of the same disease.


Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 21: Benjamin White

BENJAMIN WHITE (September 26, 1792-September 19, 1869)

Buried in Alexander Cemetery, Anna, Texas.

Born in Georgia.  He has a War of 1812 marker paced at his grave by the General Society of the War of 1812, Craig Austin Rowley Chapter, Plano, Texas, dedicated on November 16, 2013.


Friday, November 11, 2016

Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 20: Eleazor Louis Ripley Wheelock

During the Texas Revolution, Wheelock organized and was captain of a company of Texas Rangers.  During the Texas Republic, he served as a regional land commissioner.  From 1836-1845 he was either an adviser or leader of expeditions against Indians.  During one raid, his son-in-law was killed and his daughter taken prisoner by the Indians.

But even then, like his friend Sam Houston, Wheelock was a defender of Indian rights.  Toward the end of the Texas Republic, he was Indian commissioner.

He visited Washington, D.C. on Republic business and on his way home, died unexpectedly at the home of his brother-in-law in Edwardsville, Illinois.


Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 19: Eleazor Louis Ripley Wheelock

By 1820, he was investing heavily into Texas real estate.  In 1823, he visited Texas and spent a year surveying the town of Tampico.  During his second trip he met Sterling C. Robertson.

Returning to Illinois, he answered the call of Illinois Governor Reynolds in 1832 and served in the Black Hawk War.  Throughout his adult life he was active in militia organizations and had risen to the rank of colonel by 1833.

In 1833, he moved his family to Robertson's Colony in Texas and established the town of Wheelock in what is now in Robertson County.  He served as a surveyor, lawyer, rancher, farmer and soldier.


Thursday, November 10, 2016

Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 18: Col. Eleazor Louis Ripley Wheelock

From the Texas State Historical Association.

They spelled Eleazor as Eleazar.

He was the son of Col. Eleazor Wheelock, Jr., a Revolutionary War veteran.  At the age of 13, his family moved to Ohio.  After the deaths of his parents, he entered the U.S. Army and served first in the Ohio militia and later as an ensign in the New York 21st Regiment.

He saw active duty in the War of 1812.

After the war, he settled in Illinois and in 1818 married Mary Prickett.  Their four sons and daughter were all born in Illinois.


Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 17: Colonel Eleazor Louis Ripley Wheelock

COLONEL ELEAZOR LOUIS RIPLEY WHEELOCK (March 31, 1793 to April 20, 1847)

Buried at the Texas State Cemetery.

Born in New Hampshire, the grandson of the founder of Dartmouth College.  Officer in the War of 1812, the Black Hawk War and the War for Texas Independence.

Founder of the town of Wheelock in Robertson's Colony.

Captain in the Texas Rangers.

Quite a list of accomplishments for this man.

I have also already written about a General Eleazor Wheelock Ripley in this blog and I imagine these two men have to have had some relationship.


Wednesday, November 9, 2016

31st U.S. Infantry and the Battle of Shadage Woods

I was interested in John Ferdinand Webber's War of 1812 unit, the 31st U.S. Infantry.  Unfortunately, I was unable to find out much about it, or the Battle of Shadage Woods.  I did find out it was a Vermont regiment (as was the 30th U.S. Infantry).

With Webber's company commander, Captain S. Dickinson, I found out the "S" stood for Silas.  Beyond that I couldn't find anything about him.

Nor was there any mention of a Battle of Shadage Woods other than in regards to Webber fighting at it.  It might possibly be referring to the Battle of Longwoods.

I did find mention of a Captain Rufus Stewart, 31st Regiment U.S. Infantry who served from December 25, 1813, to June 7, 1815.  He was asked to raise a company of Vermont militia who patrolled the Vermont-Canada border to prevent smuggling.  He was at the Battle of Plattsburgh.


Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 16: John Ferdinand Webber


Born in Vermont.  Also known as "Juan Fernando."  During the War of 1812, he was in Captain S. Dickinson's Company, 31st U.S. Infantry from May 23, 1813, to May 31, 1814.  Fought at the Battle of Shadage Woods.

After the war, he eventually ended up at Austin's colony in Texas in 1824.  He married a slave, whom he freed and had eight children with her.  He did not fight in the Texas Revolution.

Later, he was the first settler in Webber's Prairie in Travis County, Texas, but in the 1840s, with more settlers moving into the area from the South, he found that they did not approve of his mixed marriage and he moved his family in 1853 to land near Hidalgo, Texas, on the Rio Grande River where he established Webber's Ranch.

Webber was a staunch Unionist and felt forced to move to Mexico during the Civil War, but returned in 1865.  He is buried in Webber cemetery in Hildalgi, Texas.


Tuesday, November 8, 2016

Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 15: William Weaver


Born in North Carolina.  In the War of 1812, he was a private in Captain Benjamin Henry's 2nd Regiment Georgia State Troops and Militia.  In 1818, he was in Alabama.

Buried in Bascom Cemetery, Bascom, Texas.


Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 14: Francis Marcus Weatherred


Born in Virginia.  Was a soldier in the Creek War and the Texas War of Independence.

Buried in Milam Cemetery, Milam, Texas.


Monday, November 7, 2016

Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 13: Thomas Watts

THOMAS WATTS   (1765-1841)

Born in Ireland.  Awarded a Mexican Land Grant and lived to see the Republic of Texas but not Texas becoming a U.S. state.

Died February 21, 1841, and is buried at Watts-Fuller Cemetery in Jaspar County, Texas.


Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 12: Elisha Henry Robert Wallis


Born in Georgia.  Married in Louisiana in 1814.  That same year he enlisted in the 16th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Division at Opelousas, Louisiana and fought at the Battle of New Orleans.

Moved from Louisiana to Texas in 1824 and settled at Wallis Hill.

He is buried at Wallis Hill Cemetery, a plaqued site.

Wallisville, Texas, an unincorporated town on the Trinity River is named after him.


Friday, November 4, 2016

Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 11: David Wade and Warner Wallace

David Wade, 1779-1861.  Born in Virgina and was a private in Captain Pat Anderson's company, William Trueheart's 74th Virginia Militia.

Served during 1813.  Buried in Fayetteville Cemetery.

Warner Wallace 1779-1870.  Buried Texas State Cemetery.


Thursday, November 3, 2016

Texas State Cemetery

From its website.

After doing the post on William Todd, who was reinterred here because of his prominence in Texas history, I decided to find out more about it.

It is just blocks away from the Texas State Capitol in Austin and is the final resting place of many Texas governors, senators, legislators, Congressmen, judges and legendary Texans.

The effort to establish this cemetery began in 1851 with the death of General Edward Burleson who served with Sam Houston at the Battle of San Jacinto and was vice president of the Republic of Texas.

Others buried there include Stephen F. Austin, General Albert Sidney Johnson and Governor John Connally (in the car with JFK during the assassination).

Wikipedia says the cemetery has 22 acres and is divided into two sections.  The smaller one, 900 burials, is for famous Texans and larger for Confederate veterans and their widows.  Two thousand Confederate veterans and their widows are buried in the larger part.


Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 10: William Tom

WILLIAM TOM  Born 1792 in either Maury County, Georgia, or the Southwest Territory.  Died February 15, 1871 in Guadalupe County, Texas.  Buried at the Texas State Cemetery in Austin.

Early settler, Texas Revolutionary Soldier and Texas Ranger.

During the War of 1812, he fought at the battles of Horseshoe Bend and New Orleans.  He moved his family to Stephen F. Austin's colony in Yexas in 1835.  In June and July of that year he organized a unit and fought the Comanche and Towakoni Indians.

Joining the Volunteer Army of Texas on October 10, 1835, he marched to San Antonio and fought at the Battle of Concepcion and the Grass Fight.  He was at the Siege of Bexar and remained at San Antonio until February 11, 1836.  (The Siege of the Alamo was from February 23-March 6, 1836).

He commanded a Ranger company on the Sabinal River during the Republic of Texas.  In 1846, he moved to Seguin.  His wife died in 1870 and he the following year and they were buried in the family cemetery but in 1937, their bodies were reinterred at the State Cemetery of Texas.


Wednesday, November 2, 2016

Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 9: James Thomason

JAMES THOMASON (1781-1856)

Born in Georgia.  Buried Oakwood Cemetery, Huntsville, Texas.

Son of Corp. John R. Duet Thomason.  Born 1724 in Petersburg, Virginia.  Died 1825 and buried in Dr. William D. Partlow Armory Cemetery in Ashville, Alabama.

He was a soldier in the American revolution and due to his being an officer, was given a large tract of land near present-day Springville, Alabama.  He evidently was the father of the James Thomason buried in Oakwood Cemetery in Huntsville, Texas.

There was also another Revolutionary War soldier named John Thomason who was a corporal in a North Carolina artillery company commanded by Captain John Kingsbury. who enlisted March 20, 1777, for the duration of the war.


Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 8: John "Jackie" S. Thomas

John "Jackie" S. Thomas (1794-1875)

Pioneer of Dallas.

I could find no mention of his War of 1812 service, though he is listed in Find-A-Grave's Texas War of 1812 Veterans.  He was married in 1815 in Sevier, Tennessee, so was likely served with a Tennessee.unit.

First Chief Justice of Dallas.  Buried in Greenwood Cemetery, Dallas.


Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 7: James Gibson Swisher


In the War of 1812 he served in Captain David Mason's company of Tennessee militia from August 18, 1813 to May 21, 1814, and in Captain John Donelson's company of United States Mounted Rangers from September 2, 1814, to September 2, 1815.

He participated in the two battles for New Orleans.

He and his family moved to Texas in 1833 and he was one of the signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence.  He was a veteran of the Siege of Bexar.

Swisher County, Texas is named for him.

Buried at Oakwood Cemetery in Austin, Texas.


Turncoat Led Raid on Newark-- Part 3: Joseph Willcocks

Willcocks joined the American Army as a colonel while still serving in the lower assembly of Canada and was kicked out of office.  He used U.S, troops to conduct a campaign of slash-and-burn expeditions that often targeted former of political enemies..  He especially went after his old hometown of Newark.

This is one of the reasons for the British burning Washington, D.C..

He managed to evade several capture attempts, but later died fighting for the Americans at the siege of Fort Erie in 1814.


Tuesday, November 1, 2016

Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 6: Sam Stone, Ferry Man

When Mexican General Adrian Woll seized San Antonio in 1842, Stone was there on business and taken to Mexico as a prisoner until released in 1844.  In 1845, he moved to Austin and in 1846 opened the first ferry at Austin across the Colorado River.

He and two sons went to California during the Gold Rush and returned with a few nuggets of it.

Buried at the Texas State Cemetery in Austin.


Texas War of 1812 Veterans-- Part 5: Sam Stone

Continued from November 17, 2015.

From Find-A-Grave Texas 1812 Veterans.

Smither, John  (1779-1860.  Born Virginia.  Buried at Oakwood Cemetery in Huntsville.

Stone, Samuel Theophilus, Sr.  (1797-1857)  Joined the Virginia Militia in Baltimore in 1814, giving his occupation as hatter and described as six feet tall.  (He very likely was at the Battle of Baltimore.)  Honorably discharged in 1814.  Got married in Alabama in 1823 and then moved to Hannibal. Missouri in 1828 where he established the first ferry across the Mississippi River.

In the Spring he and several Hannibal families moved to Texas.and settled in Barstop and became a hatter and operated a ferry across the Colorado River.  he and his sons often served in the Texas military to defend against marauding Indians and Mexicans.

More on Him Next Post.  --Brock-Perry

Monday, October 31, 2016

HMS Terror

A British bomb vessel completed 31 July 1813 and commissioned 7 October 1813.  Abandoned in Victoria Strait, Canada 22 April 1848.

Its armament was one 13-inch mortar and one 10-inch one.  Commanded by John Sheridan.

Bombarded Stonington, Connecticut in August 1814, at the Battle of Baltimore and Fort McHenry 13-14 September 1814 and was one of those bombs bursting in air ships.

In January 1815 was at Battle of Fort Peter and the attack on St. Marys, Georgia.

After the war, it was used for Arctic exploration until laid up in 1828.  After which it saw service in the Mediterranean.


Turncoat Led Raid to Burn Newark-- Part 2: Joseph Willcocks

Joseph Willcocks was arrested three times for criminal libel and contempt.  During the War of 1812, he fought against Isaac Brock's attempt to invoke martial law successfully, then helped Brock enlist Indians to help the British.

He fought with Brock at the Battle of Queenstown Heights where Brock was killed.

A year later, Willcocks decided the Americans were on the right side for going to war and started passing secrets to the U.S. Secretary of War about British troop movements.

Isaac Brock is part of the reason I sign off with Brock-Perry each blog entry.


Friday, October 28, 2016

Turncoat Led Raid to Burn Newark-- Part 1: Joseph Willcocks

From the November 1, 2015, Niagara Falls Review (Canada) by Tom Villemaire.

Joseph Willcocks couldn't decide which side to fight for.  He was born in Ireland and had a love-hate relationship with both the governments of the United States and Canada.  Born in the family of a middle class British family in Ireland, he was fairly wealthy and came to the Upper Canada in 1799.

He was sheriff of York (Toronto) and assisted judges while becoming a large landowner with over 1000 acres on the Niagara Peninsula.  Later he established a newspaper which was critical of the United States and was elected to the Lower Assembly.


Wednesday, October 26, 2016

Jacob Nicholas Jones' Namesakes

From Wikipedia.

Three U.S. Navy ships have been named USS Jacob Jones as well as Jones Island in Washington state.

**USS JACOB JONES (DD-61)--  Tucker-class destroyer commissioned in 1916 and damaged by a torpedo from U-53 and scuttled during World War I.

**  USS JACOB JONES (DD-130)--  Wickes-class destroyer, commissioned in 1919 and sunk by torpedo from the U-578 February 1942 off the coast of the U.S.

**  USS JACOB JONES (DE-130)--  Edsall-class destroyer escort commissioned in 1943 and decommissioned in 1946.


Jacob Nicholas Jones Postwar Career

From Wikipedia.

He was a commodore in the U.S. Mediterranean Squadron 1821-1823 and in the Pacific squadron 1826-1829.  During the period between these sea duties, he was a Navy Commissioner in Washington, D.C..

He held commands ashore in Baltimore and New York in the 1830s and 1840s.  His final command assignment  was at the Philadelphia Naval Asylum from 1847 to his death in 1850.  That answers my question yesterday as to what he did at the asylum.


Tuesday, October 25, 2016

Jacob Nicholas Jones

From Together We Served site.  List of and dates of U.S. Navy Service.

1799-1801   USS United States
1801-1803   USS Philadelphia
1801-1805   Prisoner of War, Algeria

1805-1810   U.S. Navy
1810-1812   USS Wasp
1813-1814   USS Macedonian

1815   USS Macedonian
1816-1818   USS Guerriere
1818-1821   U.S. Navy

1821-1823   Mediterranean Squadron
1823-1826   U.S. Navy Board of Commissioners
1826-1827   Pacific Squadron

1829-1847   U.S. Navy
1847-1850  U.S. Naval Asylum

Not sure about the last place he was.  Did he command it or was he in it?


War of 1812 Naval Hero Jacob N. Jones Inducted Into Delaware Maritime Hall of Fame

From the November 2, 2015, Cape "Delaware Maritime Hall of Fame holds induction" by Steven Bishop.

This was held October 17, 2015, at Lewis Yacht Club.  Among the inductees was War of 1812 hero Captain Jacob N. Jones, a naval officer.

He was raised in Lewis during the Revolutionary War and was later a doctor in that town and Clerk of the Delaware Supreme Court.


Monday, October 24, 2016

Lt. Col. Seymour Boughton, Killed at the Battle of Buffalo

In Friday's post, I mentioned the death of Lt. Col. Seymour Boughton at the battle.

He commanded a new unit added to the Ontario County (NY) Militia, the 12th Regiment Cavalry, on May 23, 1812.  He was killed and scalped by Indians as he fled from the burning town of Buffalo.

From the July 23, 2013, Inside the Conservator's Studio.'

The red silk sash that belonged to Lt. Col. Seymour Boughton was brought to them to prepare for a showing at a local history exhibit in the area.

Boughton commanded a unit of 129 men of the 12th Regiment Cavalry, 1st Brigade Ontario County Militia.  He was from the town of Avon and died December 30, 1813, at the Battle of Buffalo, also called the Battle of Black Rock.

His sash is not ornate, but does feature a weave structure known as "sprang."


Friday, October 21, 2016

The Battle of Buffalo-- Part 4: Casualties

British losses:  25 regulars, 3 militia and 3 Indians killed,  63 regulars. 6 militia and 3 Indians wounded.  9 regulars missing.  The Americans report taking five prisoners.

American losses:  50 killed, 52 wounded.  Among the dead was Lt. Col. Boughton.  Canadian newspapers reported 67 captured Americans, including Lt. Col. Chapin.

Also, the Americans lost 8 pieces of artillery.


The Battle of Buffalo-- Part 3: Two Towns Sacked and Razed

Gen. Amos Hall then took personal command at Black Rock.  As dawn broke, he directed a heavy cannonade and musketry at the British.  Riall advanced at the center and sent troops to attack the American right flank.

When the right flank broke and fled off in a rout, Hall was forced to order a general retreat of the whole American army in order not to be enveloped.  The British followed all the way to Buffalo, two miles away.  There they sacked and burned every building but four, destroyed the navy yard as well as three armed schooners: the Chippawa, Ariel and Little Belt.

They then returned to Black Rock and there they did the same to all but one building.


Thursday, October 20, 2016

The Battle of Buffalo-- Part 2: An Earlier Action Preceding the Battle of Black Rock

Lt. General Gordon Drummond was newly appointed Lt. Governor of Upper Canada, and was planning an offensive against the American side of the Niagara River.

In the early morning hours of December 18, 1813, a force under Col. John Murray captured Fort Niagara.  Another force under Major General Phineas Riall raided the American side of the river and destroyed Lewiston, Youngstown, Manchester and Tuscarora as well as small settlements around Fort Schlosser.

U.S. troops halted Riall and he recrossed the Niagara River, but with the intentions of attacking Black Rock and Buffalo.  With him he had 965 British regulars, 50 Canadian militia and 400 natives.  To oppose him, American General Amos Hall had more soldiers, 2,011, but they were all militia.

Riall crossed the Niagara River around midnight December 29, 1813, two miles downstream (north) of Black Rock, and easily effected a landing, driving a few Americans away.  General Hall then sent militia to investigate the fighting, but they were quickly driven off.


Wednesday, October 19, 2016

The Battle of Buffalo-- Part 1: The Burning of Newark

From Wikipedia.

Also known as the Battle of Black Rock.

Took place near the Niagara River in western New York in what was called the Niagara Frontier.

British forces drove off a hastily-organized defense by militia and then engaged in considerable plundering and destruction.

This occurred in retaliation for the American burning of the Upper Canadian village of Newark (now Niagara-On-the-Lake).

Brigadier General George McClure, New York militia, commander of Fort George, decided to abandon that post December 10, 1813, and ordered that the neighboring village of Newark be destroyed.  He gave the people there only a few hours notice and then turned them out on a cold winter's night and then burned all but one of their 150 buildings to the ground.

Setting the Stage.  --Brock-Perry

Amos Hall-- Part 3: Loss of Buffalo and Later Life

Daylight of December 30, 1813, found Gen. Amos Hall's force marching to Black Rock with 1,200 militia and some Seneca Indian warriors.  This force attacked the British and did well until Hall ordered a withdrawal to prevent them from being enveloped by the British.

At this point, all discipline among the militia disintegrated and it turned into a rout.  The British took Black Rock and burned the entire village.

Hall now had some 800 men at nearby Buffalo and they lost that as well.  The British proceeded to burn the town as well as five ships tied up there.  Hall had at least 140 casualties in this action.

General Hall was subsequently blamed for the losses at Black Rock and Buffalo and removed from command in early winter 1814.  He remained with the militia until 1818 when he resigned with the rank of major general.

The rest of his life he was a prominent citizen of western New York until his death in West Bloomfield on December 28, 1827.


Tuesday, October 18, 2016

Amos Hall-- Part 2: Lost the Battle of Black Rock (Also Called the Battle of Buffalo)

Amos Hall's militia force was inexperienced, poorly trained and poorly equipped to face the veteran British soldiers who were coming at them.  (However, Hall had been their commander so has to take some of the blame for their being poorly trained.)

Meanwhile, in Canada, Lt. General Sir Gordon Drummond was planning attacks on Buffalo and nearby Black Rock in retaliation for American General George McClure's destruction of Newark in Upper Canada a short time earlier.

By December 28, 1813, Amos Hall had deployed his American militia units inside of and along the periphery of Black Rock.  That night, British troops crossed the Shogeoquady Creek and Hall's militia fled.  American losses in the action amounted to around 800, most of whom had deserted or were in hiding.

Not a very good effort on the American side for this action.


Monday, October 17, 2016

Amos Hall-- Part 1: Thrown Into the Fight

From the Encyclopedia of the War of 1812.

Helped form the local militia in New York and held commissions in it for many years before the War of 1812.  Saw limited action in the early stages of the war, but became a brigadier general.

When the the highly unpopular Brigadier General George McClure was removed from command on the Niagara Frontier in mid-December 1813, Hall succeeded him on December 25.

Fearing a British attack on Buffalo, Hall arrived the following day and established his headquarters between Buffalo and Black Rock in hopes of defending both, but he lacked the troops and resources to do it.


Friday, October 14, 2016

7th Connecticut (American Revolution)-- Part 6: Stephen Hall Also Served in the 10th Connecticut

From Historic Register of Officers in the Continental Army.

Stephen Hall (Connecticut)

1st Lieutenant 1st May to 20th December 1775.

1st Lieutenant 10th Connecticut Infantry, 1st January to 31st December 1776

Captain 7th Connecticut, 1st January 1777.  Retired 1st January 1781.

Died 25 April 1783.


7th Connecticut Infantry (American Revolution)-- Part 5: Officers of Stephen Hall's Company

From Record of Connecticut Men in Military and Naval Service During the Revolution.

7th Connecticut Infantry

3rd Company

Captain Stephen Hall

1st Lieutenant--  Jebiel Meigs, Jr.

2nd Lieutenant--  Ebenezer Fowler, Jr.

Ensign--  David Dufley


Thursday, October 13, 2016

7th Connecticut Infantry-- Part 4: Captain Stephen Hall's Company

From Archives, rootsweb.

This information applies to Captain Hall's company.

Captain Stephen Hall; January 10, 1777:  4 sergeants; 4 corporals; 2 musicians (I would think Amos Hall was one of these two); 61 privates.

During the course of their service in the American Revolution  11 died, 8 deserted and 1 was a prisoner.

Where the company enlisted from:  54 unknown, 10 from Guilford (one of these likely Amos Hall), 6 from Walling and one each from Glastonburg and New Milford.


7th Connecticut Infantry-- Part 3: At Valley Forge in the Revolution

I did some more research on the 7th Connecticut, trying to find information on Amos Hall or his father.

From Valley Forge Legacy:  The Muster Roll Project.

The 7th Connecticut Regiment was organized January 1777 at New Medford, Connecticut, with men coming from Litchfield, Fairfield, New Haven and New London counties.

The regiment entered Valley Forge with 536 men, 358 fit for duty.

The 7th left Valley Forge with the 1st Connecticut Regiment and had 869 men, 551 fit for duty.  (I am assuming this meant that it was put in with the 1st Connecticut.

Before Valley Forge, the 7th Connecticut had participated in the defense of Philadelphia.

The 7th was commanded by Col. Heman Swift.  Lt.Col. was Josiah Starr and major was John Sedwick.

There were eight companies and one was commanded by Captain Stephen Hall.


Wednesday, October 12, 2016

7th Connecticut-- Part 2: Nathan Hale Was In It

I found another source on the 7th Connecticut during the American revolution which said that a Nathan Hale commanded the Third Company of this regiment.

He was commissioned a lieutenant July 6, 1775, and promoted to captain September 1, 1775.  A discharge was given him on December 10, 1775.

Wikipedia lists him as being born in Coventry, Connecticut where he joined that colony's militia before being appointed 1st lieutenant in the 7th Connecticut.

I Sure Didn't Know This.  --Brock-Perry

There Was Also a 7th Connecticut Infantry in the Civil War

This regiment took part in several coastal operations and were at the Florida Battle of Olustee and the Second Battle of Fort Fisher.


Tuesday, October 11, 2016

7th Connecticut Infantry-- Part 1: American Revolution

In the last few posts, I mentioned that Amos Hall was a captain in the 7th Connecticut Infantry during the American Revolution and that he entered the military as a fifer in his father's regiment.  I felt that had Amos hall been born as listed in 1761, that would have made him quite young to be a captain during the Revolutionary War.

I did a little more research on this regiment.


The 7th Connecticut Infantry was raised September 16, 1776 at New Milford, Connecticut.  It saw action at the battles of Brandywine, Germantown and Monmouth.

It was merged with the 5th Connecticut on January 1, 1781, at West Point, New York and disbanded November 15, 1783.

I found no mention of a Captain Amos Hall in the unit.

But, in the last post I mentioned that he had been a fifer in his fathers's regiment and that was the 7th Connecticut.  And, his father was Stephen Hall and rose to the rank of captain in it.


Major General Amos Hall-- Part 4: Served in Father's regiment During the Revolution

From Find-A-Grave.


Born Nov. 21, 1761  Guilford, Connecticut  Died Dec. 28, 1827, West Bloomfield, New York.

Son of Captain Stephen Hall and Abigail Sexton.

Entered the military at age 15 as a fifer in his father's regiment during the Revolutionary War.  In 1790, settled in upstate New York and took the first census in western New York in 1790.  Helped to found West Bloomfield.

He was also a U.S. deputy marshal, member of the state assembly, a state senator 1809-1813.  Rose to the rank of major general during the War of 1812 and was commander-in-chief of the Niagara Frontier.

Buried in the Pioneer Cemetery in West Bloomfield, New York.


Monday, October 10, 2016

Major General Amos Hall-- Part 3: War of 1812 Service

In 1800, Amos Hall became a brigadier general in the Ontario and Steuben county militias.  He served in western New York state throughout the War of 1812.

In December 1813, he became temporary commander of American troops gathering near Buffalo and was the American commander at the Battle of Buffalo on December 30, 1813.  This battle ranks as a U.S, debacle and brought dishonor to him.

After the war, he returned to West Bloomfield.


Major General Amos Hall-- Part 2: Served in the American Revolution and Later Moved to Western New York

Major General Amos Hall was born at Guilford, Connecticut, on November 21, 1761.    He was a captain in the 7th Connecticut Infantry in the American Revolution.  (This would have made him quite a young officer.)  He was also a sergeant in that unit (perhaps he became an officer late in the war).

I was not able to find out anything about Amos Hall's service in the 7th Connecticut during the American Revolution.

After the war, he became a surveyor in western New York and a tavern-keeper in West Bloomfield, New York, a town he helped found in 1796.


Major General Amos Hall-- Part 1: His Orderly Book

Last week, I mentioned this officer's name in connection with Camp Hardscrabble near Dickersonville, New York, and had never heard of him before, so further research was in order.

From the William Clements Library, University of Michigan.

They have his 181301814 Orderly Book which consists of 108 pages.  It belonged to Major General Amos Hall who commanded a New York militia unit near Buffalo during the War of 1812 and contains correspondence with other commanding officers stationed in western New York between December 24, 1813, and April 10, 1814.

This is probably where the letter commanding officers at Camp Hardscrabble came from in the previous posts.


Friday, October 7, 2016

War of 1812 Army Camp at Dickersonville, N.Y.-- Part 4: Hardscrabble Burned By the British

After the British captured Fort Niagara in December 1813, Hardscrabble became one of the few places on the Niagara Frontier still under American control.

Sometime in early July, the British burned the camp.  One source says troops stationed there had been dismissed three months earlier in April 1814.

Seven hundred American troops were then sent to Lewiston so it could be rebuilt.  Whether Hardscrabble was rebuilt is not known, but another encampment was established at Lewiston despite the British still holding Fort Niagara until May 1815.


Thursday, October 6, 2016

War of 1812 Army Camp at Dickersonville, N.Y.-- Part 3: Col. Harris to Command It

Major General Amos Hall continued:  "From the talents and experience of Col. Harris the major general has the strongest confidence that the important post to the command of which he is assigned will be well secured and that the regulation and discipline of the troops will be such as to reflect on the officers and soldiers."

A camp was established that could hold 1,500 to 2,000 men, but the most ever mentioned in Army records as being there were from 500-600.  Besides barracks, they had arms storage, an ammunition storage building and a hospital.


War of 1812 Army Camp in Dickersonville, N.Y.-- Part 2: "Proceed to Hardscrabble"

An order written by Major General Amos Hall from his headquarters at Batavia on January 23, 1814, mentioned:  "Lt. Col. Jno (John) Hopkins will proceed to Hardscrabble to the cantonment (camp) now occupied by the troops under Col. Swift and take charge of the detachment of the command... the troops under the command of Lt. Col. Harris will be quartered in as compact a manner as the nature of the ground and present barracks will admit, and Lt. Col. Harris will make proper provision for quarters by building huts as soon as may be...."


Tuesday, October 4, 2016

A War of 1812 Army Camp in Dickersonville, New York-- Part 1

From the September 3, 2016, Lockport (NY) Union-Sun & Journal "Niagara Discoveries:  Dickersonville was home to War of 1812 army camp.

In 1812 or 1813, the U.S. Army established a camp in the vicinity of Ridge Road (Route 104) and Dickersonville.  Its exact location is unknown, but it was called "Hardscrabble."

The first known record of the camp was on January 23, 1814, more than a month after he British captured Fort Niagara and destroyed settlements along the Niagara River and Lake Ontario.

Monday, October 3, 2016

Another William Himrod War of 1812 Veteran

From Expedition Erie (Pennsylvania).


May 19, 1791- June 21, 1873.

It is unclear whether the General William Himrod and this man were related/

Born in Turbotville, Pennsylvania and came to Erie in 1810.  Was a carpenter and joiner until 1840.

During the War of 1812 he was a private in Captain McGuire's Company of Pennsylvania State Militia for 35 days October-November 1812.

He bought land in Erie, Pennsylvania, and named it New Jerusalem and offered plots to "newly freed blacks and destitute whites" for the opportunity to own their own homestead.  He taught Sunday School to blacks and provided them with Bible Study.

William Himrod was also a pioneer in Erie's iron industry.


Who Was General Himrod-- Part 3: Raised a Regiment of Soldiers

From History of Tioga, Chemung, Tompkins and Schuyler Counties, New York (1879).

General William Himrod came to town in 1802 from Easton, Pennsylvania and bought the south half of lot No. 55, afterwards known as "Himrod's Settlement."

He raised a regiment of soldiers during the War of 1812 and died in 1813.

His descendants still live in the area.


Sunday, October 2, 2016

Who Was General Himrod?-- Part 2: Militia Man

From Find-a-Grave.


Born 1766 in New Jersey.  Died Feb. 8, 1813, in Seneca County, New York.

Tanner by trade.  Was a captain in the militia in 1797, a major by 1801 and major general in the War of 1812.

He died from fever contracted in the service and was buried with military honor in Ovid.

His body was later removed to Grove Cemetery in Trumansburg.

So, there is some confusion here.


Friday, September 30, 2016

Who Was General Himrod?

From Ithaca (NY).com. "Old Lodi Cemetery Gets Spruced Up" by Glynis Hart.

Most of the article is about this old cemetery, which had fallen upon hard times, being fixed up.  A photo accompanies the article of the resting place of General William Himrod on the cemetery.  It says he raised a local regiment to go fight the British in 1812.

The article goes on to say that his family is buried there as well and that Himrod had bought Military Lot #55, which became known as Himrod's Settlement."

But, as time passed, the fence around his plot rusted and fell apart

Looks like I'll have to do some more research on him.


Thursday, September 29, 2016

Haunted Stories Abound at Fort McHenry

From the October 30, 2015, WBAL TV 11  "Haunted stories abound at Fort McHenry" by Jennifer Franciotti.

A woman said she saw feet off the ground at the site of where the hangman's gallows once stood.

Another woman said she saw two American defenders wearing white cross belts, blue coats and white pants and boots.

During World War I, a 3,000 bed hospital was located in the barracks.

However, the fort no longer offers ghost tours.


Thursday, September 22, 2016

USS Constitution-- Part 9: Sailed Under Own Power Twice in the Last 20 Years

The USS Constitution was in dry dock 1992-1996 and again in 1997, to celebrate its 200th anniversary where it sailed for the first time under its own power in 116 years.

Then, the ship again sailed briefly under its own power in 2012, to mark the bicentennial of the beginning of the War of 1812. and her momentous battle with the British frigate HMS Guerriere, which led to her being called "Old Ironsides."

The victory over the Guerriere was great for American morale in the War of 1812, but really, the British ship was entirely overmatched as the Constitution was more of a super frigate or pocket battleship compared to it


Wednesday, September 21, 2016

USS Constitution-- Part 8: "Ay, Tear Her Tattered Ensign Down"



September 16, 1830

Ay, tear her tattered ensign down!
Long has it waved on high,
And many an eye has danced to see
That banner in the sky;

Beneath it rung the battle shout,
And burst the cannon's roar, --
The meteor of the ocean air
Shall sweep the clouds no more.

Only, I thought "Ay" was spelled "Aye."

Again, I only remembered the first two lines.  But, in my defense, I memorized this poem a real long, long, long time ago.

And, There Were Two More Stanzas.  --Brock-Perry

Tuesday, September 20, 2016

USS Constitution-- Part 7: The Poem "Old Ironsides"

I looked up the poem and found it was written by Oliver Wendell Holmes in 1830, not during the pennies campaign of the school children.  And, now, I am not sure if I had to memorize it in fifth grade.  It might have been third.

The more I think about it, the more I am thinking it perhaps was third grade and was a way for us to learn how to memorize.

But either way, it did help me learn to memorize, although I forget what I memorize more often than not.

What Was I Writing About?  --Brock-What

Saturday, September 17, 2016

USS Constitution-- Part 6: How Many of You Had to Memorize the "Old Ironsides" Poem?

I can still remember the first two lines:

"Aye, tear her tattered ensign down,
Long has it flown on high.'

Beyond this, I can't remember.

Can you do better?


Friday, September 16, 2016

USS Constitution-- Part 10: Oliver Wendell Holmes

From Wikipedia.

Born August 29, 1809  died October 7, 1894.

American physician, poet, professor, lecturer and author.

Born in Cambridge, Massachusetts and educated at Harvard College.  After graduation from Harvard in 1829, he briefly studied law before turning his attention to medicine.

He wrote poetry from an early age and his "Old Ironsides" poem, published in 1830,  was influential in the eventual preservation of the USS Constitution.  This was probably the 1927-1931 restoration of the ship.


USS Constitution-- Part 5: Saved By School Children's Pennies

The USS Constitution saw 57 years of active duty and during that time, captured 33 ships.  It sailed around the world and was used as a naval training ship during the Civil War and later was a floating office ship.

The most significant restoration on the ship was done 1927-1931.  At the time, the ship was in such bad condition that it was in danger of sinking at the pier.  U.S. school children raised $157,000 in a pennies campaign that funded nearly 85% of the ship.

I believe the poem that I had to memorize in fifth grade in North Carolina, "Old Ironsides" by Oliver Wendell Holmes, was part of the campaign to raise those pennies.


Thursday, September 15, 2016

Frazz Goes to a War of 1812 Battlefield, Well, Maybe Not

From the August 10, 2016, Frazz comic strip.

The father obviously aims a dart at a board to determine where the family goes for vacation.

1.  The student/son is standing, slumped over with arms folded and looking mighty sad.

2.  The Dad's dart must be approaching the board as the kid is now crouching in anticipation.

3.  He jumps with joy!!

Over the frames are the words:  Your dad aimed the vacation dart at a free War of 1812 battlefield and it landed on H2O Water S;ides.

4.  Frazz to the kid:  "I though he (the kid's dad) was a great darts player."
Kid:  "Which means anything 'happens' to the flights, where he aims is the one place the dart's not going."

Hey, I Like Those Battlefields.  --Brock-Perry

Wednesday, September 14, 2016

USS Constitution-- Part 4: Launched October 21, 1797

Humphreys also wanted copper sheathing for the hull to protect it from marine wood borers.  The United States was not producing it at the time, but Paul Revere was able to procure the needed sheathing from England.

The USS Constitution was launched on October 21, 1797 from the present-day Constitution Wharf and U.S. Coast guard base in Boston.

It was 305-feet long, 220 feet tall and had a crew of 450.

The frigates were designed to render enemy ships immobile by damaging rigging and sails.  They didn't want to sink these ships as they wanted to capture, repair and then use those ships in our fleet.

You read a lot about ships on both sides during the War of 1812, being captured and then used against its former country.


The USS Constitution-- Part 3: What Made Her the Fastest, Strongest and Most-Heavily Armed

The USS Constitution featured a bluff bow (flattened front), has a long,  narrow hull for speed and an acre's worth of sails on three masts.  It could reach speeds of up to 13 knots an hour in a good wind and even 15 when trying to outrun a pursuer.

For her outgunning an enemy frigate, she carried 24 32-pdr. carronades and 30 long guns on her gun deck.

It's hull was designed like a sandwich, three planks thick.  The exterior planks were white oak with a dense live oak framing for ribs.  It also had live oak for its interior planking.

Today, the ship's keel is one of the only few original pieces of the ship remaining.  It is made of four pieces of white oak harvested from New Jersey in 1795.


Tuesday, September 13, 2016

The USS Constitution-- Part 2: It and Her sister Ships Were the Fastest, Strongest, Most Heavily Armed Frigates Afloat

Soon afterwards the fleet was sold, our merchant ships started being harassed by the British and the North Africa Barbary Pirates.  In 1794, George Washington signed the Naval Act, authorizing $600,000 for the construction of six-medium-sized frigates.

Naval Constructor Joshua Humphreys was commissioned to build the Constitution, Chesapeake, President, United States, Congress and Constellation.  Knowing that our small Navy would be facing the huge British fleet, Humphreys designed his ships to be the fastest, strongest and most heavily armed frigates afloat.  They were essentially Super-Frigates.  No regular British frigate would have much of a chance against any of Humphreys ships.

Designed to either defeat or get away from any enemy ship.  They could easily take a British fleet in one-on-one battle.  If there were too many of them, the American ship could easily outdistance pursuit.


Restoring the USS Constitition-- Part 1: Technological Wonder

From the September 24, 2015, BU Today "Constitutional Amendments: Restoring a 218-year-old technological wonder" by Amy Laskowski.

Restoration on this great old ship is done about every twenty years.  Its current crew, all members of the U.S. Navy consists of two officers and 76 sailors.

This restoration will be a $12-$15 million project where they will be replacing the lower hull planking and caulking. the copper sheathing and some deck beams, rigging, upper masts and yards.

After the American revolution, the U.S. Navy was sold off to help pay the French back the $70 million it had loaned the rebelling colonies.


Monday, September 12, 2016

2007th Post of This Blog

This post marks the 2007th that I have done since 2012 when I began this blog to honor the Bicentennial of the War of 1812.  I believe that to be more posts than any other blog on this somewhat forgotten war.

I started it so I could learn more about the war as I realized I really didn't know a lot about it.  Back when I was teaching U.S. history, I was supposed to cover it from the beginning to the Civil War.  I think only one year I made it as far as the War of 1812.

I have definitely learned a lot about the War of 1812.

The Brock in the Brock-Perry sign-off refers to British/Canadian hero General Isaac Brock and the Perry refers to U.S. Naval hero Oliver Hazard Perry.


Fort Jennings in Ohio-- Part 5: Memorial Hall Built to Honor War's Cenetennial, 1912

In June 2012, the Ohio State University forensic anthropology team, using ground-penetrating radar was unsuccessful in its attempts to locate the exact site of the fort.  The question remains, was the blockhouse situated where the monument is or perhaps it is where the Memorial Hall stands today.

Construction of Memorial Hall was to honor the centennial of the War of 1812 and completed in 1916.  It fell into disrepair over the years, but was preserved in 2012 in preparation for the war's bicentennial.

August 19-21 Fort Jennings held its annual Fort fest to honor the centennial of the building.


Fort Jennings in Ohio-- Part 4: Where Is the Fort?

Besides protecting and escorting supplies, the 2nd Regiment of Kentucky Volunteer Militia, provided the garrison troops, produced cartridges for the muskets and built rafts and pirogues for the transportation of supplies on the Auglaize River.

The fort was located on the west branch of the river where the village of Fort Jennings stands today.  The Fort Jennings Historical Society is trying to determine the exact spot where the fort stood.

About a dozen soldiers are believed to have been buried there.


Sunday, September 11, 2016

My Students and 9-11

Another article in the Tribune was about an educator who personalizes the events of 9-11 when he talks about a friend who was murdered that day.

My students certainly had a lot of 9-11 on that day.  As soon as I learned about the attack at about 9:30 a.m., that became my lesson plan for the day.  We couldn't get TV reception, so listened to the radio in all my classes after that.  That was also the subject of all my classes the rest of the week.

I had them write a 500-word account of their experiences on that day, and I did that with all my classes for the next five years before I retired in 2006.

Saturday, September 10, 2016

Fort Jennings in Ohio-- Part 3: "Unpleassant, Uninteresting" Life at the Fort

The men of the 2nd Kentucky Volunteer Militia camped in tents during the fort's construction.

On October 1, U.S. General William Henry Harrison and several regiments numbering 3,000 men spent a night at the new fort, still under construction,  while advancing to assist General Winchester at Fort Defiance.  In mid-October, William Jennings and his regiment, now under Winchester's command, completed the fort.

It was named in honor of Colonel William Jennings.  A major role of the fort was to serve as a supply center.  Life at the fort on garrison duty was routine and monotonous.

One member of the regiment wrote:  "We had the same unpleasant, uninteresting round of escorting convoys and provisions etc. in advance of us."


Fort Jennings in Ohio-- Part 2: Built by 2nd Regiment Kentucky Militia

There is a monument surrounded by a white fence in Fort Jennings, Ohio, on State Route 189, marking the spot where 600 Kentucky volunteers prepared to served their country and supposedly built Fort Jennings' blockhouse.

The 2nd Regiment of Kentucky Volunteer Militia, commanded by Colonel William Jennings was formed for service on September 1, 1812, in Frankfort, Kentucky.  By the middle of September they were encamped at St. Mary's, Ohio, when General Harrison ordered them forward on September 14.

The regiment advanced thirty miles and saw signs of Indian presence.  Spies informed them that the enemy was at Fort Defiance.

They halted on the banks of the Auglaize River and began a blockhouse which Harrison had directed to be at least 25 feet across in the lower story.  The fort  was also to have "breastworks of logs" and encompass roughly an acre.  It was completed in October 1812.


Friday, September 9, 2016

Fort Jennings in Ohio-- Part 1: Village Named After It

From the August 14, 2016, Delphos (Ohio) Herald "This and That--  The Fort of Fort Jennings" by Evelyn Martin.

Fort Jennings was built in 1812 by Colonel William Jennings who served with General William Henry Harrison.  It was one of a string of forts built by Harrison for the defense of the frontier against the British and their Indian allies.

It is located in the village of Fort Jennings, Ohio, a small municipality in the southwest corner of Putnam County.  In 2010, the population was 485 people.  The first settlement of the area began around 1850 and it took its name from the frontier fort constructed there during the War of 1812.  The village incorporated in 1881.

Every third weekend in August, the village hosts Fort fest, a three-day event to nonor the fort at Fort Jennings Park.


Thursday, September 8, 2016

Fort Hawkins-- Part 6: Two Battles There During the Civil War

After the War of 1812. the frontier shifted west from Fort Hawkins.  U.S. troops then moved to Fort Gaines on the Chattahoochee River and Fort Scott on the lower Flint River.  Fort Hawkins continued to be used as a supply depot.  The last troops left it in 1819.

By 1828, some of the fort's structures were still there.

During the Civil War, the southeast blockhouse was used as a spotting station during the Battle of Dunlap Hill on July 30, 1864, during Union General Stoneman's attack on Macon..  It again saw action when Confederate batteries fired from the fort's grounds during the Battle of Walnut Creek which took place during Sherman's March to the Sea.

The last remnant of the fort, a blockhouse, was dismantle and removed in 1883.


Fort Hawkins-- Part 5: Built by the 2nd U.S. Infantry Regiment

From the Explore Southern History site.

Construction on the fort began in 1806 by the 2nd U.S. Infantry Regiment.

It is thought that in 1807, former U.S. Vice President Aaron Burr may have been incarcerated at the fort before he was accused of treason.  He was later acquitted.

The fort never faced a serious attack during the War of 1812 or the 1813-1814 Creek War.  But during these wars, the fort was occupied by Georgia militia troops and U.S. regulars.


Wednesday, September 7, 2016

Fort Hawkins-- Part 4: Rebuilding the Blockhouse

In 1928, the Daughters of the American Revolution and the Macon Kiwanis raised money to build a replica blockhouse.  In 1933, the U.S. government began archaeological excavations around the site by the Works Progress Administration (WPA).

Some of the original stones of the blockhouse were recovered in the process were recovered and used in the basement section of the rebuilt blockhouse.

Its upper floors are actually concrete, but made to look like wood.


Fort Hawkins-- Part 3: A War of 1812 Connection

The fort was built from 1806 through 1826.  For the Creek Indians, it became a center for deerskin trade with Europeans/Americans and was also on sacred ground.

It was named for Benjamin Hawkins who was still serving as General Superintendent of Indian Affairs.

During the War of 1812,  Andrew Jackson visited it and used it as a staging area for the Battle of New Orleans as well as during the Creek and Seminole wars.

After the war, it was used as militia headquarters and muster ground for the Georgia militia.


Fort Hawkins-- Part 2: A War of 1812 Connection

The fort was built from 1806 through 1826.  For the Creek Indians, it became a center for deerskin trade with Europeans/Americans and was also on sacred ground.

It was named for Benjamin Hawkins who was still serving as General Superintendent of Indian Affairs.

During the War of 1812,  Andrew Jackson visited it and used it as a staging area for the Battle of New Orleans as well as during the Creek and Seminole wars.

After the war, it was used as militia headquarters and muster ground for the Georgia militia.


Tuesday, September 6, 2016

Fort Hawkins-- Part 1: On the Creek Indian Frontier

From Wikipedia.

Fort Benjamin Hawkins, was named for Benjamin Hawkins, of course, the man I wrote about last week in connection with the Hawkins Line which set the border between white settlement and Creek Indian territory in Georgia.

Built between 1806-1810 in the historic Creek Nation.  Built in Georgia along the fault line of the Ocmulgee River, it overlooked the current Ocmulgee National Monument, the site of at least 1000 years of Indian culture.

It is located close to Macon, Georgia.

It consisted of two blockhouses with connecting palisades, living and work spaces all on 1-2 acres.  A replica of the southeast blockhouse was built in 1938 after archaeological studies located the approximate site.

It is on the NRHP.


Monday, September 5, 2016

Colin Kaepernick and the War of 1812-- Part 3: Colonial Marines

Francis Scott Key was the son of a prominent Maryland plantation owner and owned several slaves himself.  Yet, he was opposed to slavery as an institution, but very anti-abolitionist.  He strongly opposed to freeing the slaves and instead wanted a colony set up in Africa for their relocation.

During the course of his law practice, Key represented many slave owners who sued for the recovery of their "property" in cases of escaped slaves.

Historians say that the part about the "hireling and slave" refers to former slaves who joined the British for pay and/or freedom.

During the Battle of Baltimore, as the attack became known, Key was held captive on a British ship and his guards were freed black men.  The British referred to these blacks as the "Corps of Colonial Marines."  Some died during the battle, bringing about the "terror of fight or gloom of the grave."

At Least This Show of Disrespect For the Country That Enable Colin to Make All That Money Covers Up a Little Bit His Ineffectiveness As a QB.  --Brock-Perry

Saturday, September 3, 2016

The Colin Kaepernick War of 1812 Connection-- Part 2: "The Hireling and Slave"

There is some disagreement as to what Francis Scott Key meant by "hireling and slave."  He can't answer himself as he died in 1843.  His poem, "The Defence of Fort M'Henry,"on which the National Anthem is based, was written during the War of 1812 at the September 1814 Battle of Baltimore.  he was so happy to see the U.S. flag still flying defiantly over Fort McHenry after the night before's British bombardment.

But, what did Key mean by "the hireling and slave?"

Francis Scott Key was a Baltimore-born lawyer practicing in Washington, D.C..  He is noted for having participated in the conspiracy trial of Aaron Burr. and his many arguments before the U.S. Supreme Court.

More to Come.  --Brock-Perry

The Colin Kaepernick War of 1812 Connection-- Part 1: "Land of the Free?"

From the August 31, 2016, Sports Grid "Forgotten Third Verse of the National Anthem Shines New Light on Kaepernick Protest" by Rick Chandler.

A huge fuss is being made about San Francisco QB Colin Kaepernick's protest over the National Anthem.  His protest may have been motivated by the largely forgotten third verse of the song, part of which reads:

"No refuge could save the hireling and slave
From the terror of fight or gloom of the grave,
And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave."

Of course, the United States in 1814 was not really a land of the free what with slavery and all.  Fort McHenry protected  Baltimore Maryland.  Maryland still had slavery.

But, Wait, Theer Is More.  --Brock-Perry

Friday, September 2, 2016

Some More On Benjamin Hawkins-- Part 4: Wife and the Hawkins Line

His wife, Livonia, with whom he lived in common law marriage until near his death when he officially married her so his children could be American citizens (most believe that Livonia was a Creek Indian).  She is buried at Fort Hill Cemetery in Macon, Georgia.

On February 16,  1789, Benjamin Hawkins reported to secretary McHenry that the line dividing settlers from the Creek Indians ran from the Tugalo River over the Oconee Mountain.


Benjamin Hawkins (The Hawkins Line)-- Part 3: Another Red Stick Threat

After the war, Benjamin Hawkins organized peaceful Creek Indians to oppose a British force on the Apalachicola River in Florida.  They were threatening to rally the Red Sticks and reignite a war versus the settlers on the Georgia frontier.

He was buried at his Creek Agency near Flint River and Roberta, Georgia.

Find-A-Grave lists his final resting place at the Hawkins Family Cemetery.  It is the only grave in that cemetery.

His inscription reads "Col. Benjamin Hawkins/  General Washington's Staff Revolutionary War/ Aug. 15, 1754  Jun 6, 1816."

Born in Granville County, North Carolina.  Died in Crawford County, Georgia.

I would have thought the inscriptions would have mentioned something of his dealings with the Creek Indians.


Thursday, September 1, 2016

Benjamin Hawkins (Hawkins Line)-- Part 2: Peace and Then the Red Sticks

He taught European-American agriculture to the Creeks at his Creek Agency in Georgia.  Largely regarded as the main reason there was peace between American settlers and the Creeks for 19 years.  However, in 1812, a group of Creek Indians called the Red Sticks started attacking settlers and defending their lands.  They were led by Chief William McIntosh.

They continued to be a threat until Andrew Jackson's force defeated them badly at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in Alabama which led to the Treaty of Fort Jackson where the Creeks were forced to ceded most of their land.

Hawkins was unable to attend this treaty and no doubt would have been more lenient than Jackson.


Wednesday, August 31, 2016

Benjamin Hawkins (The Hawkins Line)-- Part 1

From Wikipedia.

The hawkins Line was mentioned in the last post as the  dividing line between Creek Indian land and American settlers.

I looked up this line and found it to have been named after Benjamin Hawkins.

Born 1754, died June 6, 1816.  American planter, statesman and U.S. Indian agent.

Delegate to the Continental Congress and U.S. senator from North carolina.  Appointed by George Washington as General Superintendent for Indian Affairs and served in that post from 1796 to his death.  As such, he was in charge of Native American tribes south of the Ohio River and he was the principal agent to the Creek Indians.

He established the Creek Agency and lived at his plantation in Georgia, in present-day Crawford County.  He learned to speak the Muscogee language and was adopted into the tribe.  Some say his wife, Lavinia Downs, was a Creek woman.

In 1786, he and fellow Indian agents Andrew Pickens and Joseph Martin concluded a treaty with the Choctows which set the boundaries of their land.

In 1789, he worked out a similar line for the Creeks which became known as the Hawkins Line.

Tuesday, August 30, 2016

Fort Daniel Site Offers Window to Gwinnett's Early History-- Part 2

The Fort Daniel Foundation wants to build a life-size recreation of what the fort probably looked like in 1813, but they don't know exactly what it looked like..

It was built on the Hawkins Line which separated where Georgia's settlers could live and Indian land.  Those Indians were the Creeks who allied themselves with the British during the War of 1812.

It was named for Major General Allen Daniel, commander of Georgia's 4th Division.  In October 1813, he ordered Brigadier general Frederick Beall and the Division's 2nd Brigade to build a new fort at Hog Mountain to replace one already there that was deemed inadequate.

After the war, as the Indian frontier was pushed west, the fort was no longer needed and eventually it was dismantled and the land used for agricultural purposes.  All signs that it had once been a fort eventually were erased.

In recent years, archaeological digs have found the locations of the two blockhouses and wall trenches.  The county bought the land in 2012.  The recreation fort will not be built on the fort's actual site.


Monday, August 29, 2016

Fort Daniel Site Offers Window to Gwinnett's Early History-- Part 1

From the July 2, 2016, Gwinnett (Georgia) Daily Post by Curt Yeomans.

The Fort Daniel Foundation's President Jim D'Angelo has ideas for an architectural park at the Fort Daniel site located on Braselton Highway.

It was built by Georgia state military during the War of 1812 as a defensive position on Hog Mountain along what is today Braselton Highway near Buford in 1813.  There was no Gwinnett County back then, but the area was located right across from Indian territory at the time.

Volunteers of the foundation and the Georgia Archaeological Research Society have run the site as an education area since signing a lease with the county to run it.


Friday, August 26, 2016

David C. Chambers (Son of Joseph Chambers)

From Find-A-Grave.

Son of Joseph Gaston Chambers, born November 25, 1780 in Allentown, Pennsylvania.  Died August 8, 1864 in Zanesville, Ohio.  Buried at Greenwood Cemetery, Zanesville.

As a teenager, he was a confidential rider for George Washington during the Whiskey Rebellion.

As a young adult, he moved to Zanesville, Ohio, and began a local newspaper and became Ohio state printer

He was elected to represent Ohio to fill the seat of John C. Wright in the U.S. House of Representatives and served 1821-1823.

From Wikipedia.

David Chambers learned the art of printing from Benjamin Franklin Bache, the grandson of Benjamin Franklin.  He moved to Zanesville in 1810.  During the War of 1812, he was aide-de-camp to Major General Lewis Cass.  Member of the Ohio House of Representatives 1814-1815 and served as Zanesville's mayor.

Chambers was affiliated with the Whig Party.


The Grave of Joseph Gaston Chambers

From Find-A-Grave

Washington County, Pennsylvania.

Born 1756 in Alleghenny County, Pennsylvania.

died May 28, 1829.

Served in the American revolution as a private in the 4th Battalion, Washington County Militia.

Buried in Buffalo Cemetery, Washington County, Pennsylvania.

There was no mention of his inventions in the article.


Wednesday, August 24, 2016

Joseph Chambers' Diving Suit and Torpedoes

Evidently, repeating weapons weren't the only thing Joseph Chambers was interested in.

In November 1807, he wrote to Thomas Jefferson giving details for his experiments with a primitive type of diving suit and "Torpedoes."

November 17, 1807:  From West Middleton, Pennsylvania.

A proposition for examination by the government of a submarine dress for placing torpedoes and for other purposes during the war.

These torpedoes, however, would be more like mines than the powered torpedoes we know today.


Tuesday, August 23, 2016

Letter From Joseph G. Chambers to Thomas Jefferson, 20 May 1801

From Founders Online.

Congratulating Thomas Jefferson on presidency.

Comment:  Joseph Chambers had written to Thomas Jefferson several times in the latter half of 1792 regarding his invention of a repeating firearm where he described the weapon and sought Jefferson's assistance with getting his idea to European governments.

Jefferson did not commit to this and suggested Chambers contact the French minister in America and get a patent for it from the U.S. Congress.

Pushing Product.  Brock-Perry

Monday, August 22, 2016

Letter from Joseph G. Chambers to George Washington, 5 August 1793

From the Founders Online site.

A letter written from Chambers in Philadelphia at the White Horse High Street.  He had handwritten the president earlier "on the subject of an improvement in firearms...."  His repeating guns.  No doubt here he was inquiring as to whether the president had seen his letter.

Joseph Gaston Chambers (1756-1829) lived in West Middleton, in the town of Hopewell, Washington County, Pennsylvania.

He received a patent for "Gunnery, repeating" on 23 March 1813.

He had written to George Washington previously, but that letter was not found.  No further correspondence between the two has been found.  he also wrote a letter to Jefferson.

Friday, August 19, 2016

So, What Was a 24-Pdr. Shifting Grenade Gun?

From the same source.

Also on the USS Constitution, besides the 4 Chambers repeating guns was one 24-pdr. shifting grenade gun.

This apparently was a British weapon captured by the United States.

The gun was a Congreve "shifting grenade."

Sixty-six shifting grenade guns were found on the British brig "Stranger" enroute from England to Kingston, Jamaica where they were to be used in arming two new frigates being built there.  The "Stranger" was captured by privateer "Fox" out of Portsmouth, New Hampshire.

A prize crew took it to Salem, Massachusetts, in late September 1814 where they told the U.S. Navy about them.

Not much was known about them, but on February 20, 1815, Captain Stewart and the USS Constitution defeated the HMS Cyane and HMS Levant.  Captain Fox of the Cyane wrote that he saw two of these guns on board the American ship.

Unfortunately, a quick look produced no other information on "shifting grenade" guns.


The Armament of the USS Constitution Had Four Chambers Swivel Guns-- Part 3

On August 10, 1814, Captain Charles Stewart of the USS Constitution became aware of the experiments with the Chambers swivel guns and requested three or four of them.  It is not known if they were delivered.

But later, twenty of Chambers' guns were sent to the newly completed frigate USS Guerriere.  I could find no mention of these guns on this ship.  Wikipedia lists its armament at thirty-two 24-pdrs and twenty 42-pdr. carronades.

It is believed that 114 Chambers swivel guns were made by 1814.  Only two are known to exist today.


Thursday, August 18, 2016

Confederate Privateer Jefferson Davis Wrecked This Day in 1861

This date, the highly successful Confederate privateer during the Civil War, the Jefferson Davis, Captain Louis M. Coxetter, ran aground trying to enter St. Augustine, Florida, after having captured nine Union vessels.

You may wonder what this has to do with the War of 1812?  The August 26, 1861, Charleston Mercury compared its success to that  of the War of 1812 privateer Saucy Jack.

I have written quite a bit about the Saucy Jack in this blog.

So, That's What.  --Brock-Perry

Chambers' Swivel "Machine" Guns

From "Machine Guns: An Illustrated History of Their Impact" by James H. Willbanks.  "Battery Guns"

The invention of the percussion system by Reverend Forsyth in 1807 really had an impact on the development of machine guns.  Time passed and more technological breakthroughs were made and the development of rapid fire guns continued.

One of the earliest ones was the swivel gun developed by Joseph G. Chambers of Pennsylvania.  In 1813 he took out a patent for a system of repeating gunnery.  His gun had seven barrels, each holding 32 balls that used a Roman candle approach.

A burning fuse set off the charges, one after another, delivering an impressive number of shots in a short time.  However, the firing was impossible to stop once it began and it continued until the last shot was fired.

The U.S. government purchased several of his swivel guns and several were used against British forces on the Great Lakes in the War of 1812.


Wednesday, August 17, 2016

The Armament of the USS Constitution Had Four Chambers Repeating Guns-- Part 2

In 1812, Joseph G. Chambers of Philadelphia produced a .75 caliber, seven barrel 7-shot repeating gun.  He received a patent for it in 1813 and that same year Secretary of the Navy Jones ordered ten for testing. Commodore William Bainbridge of the Boston Navy Yard conducted the tests and he considered them successful.

He reported this to Jones who then ordered a quantity of the new technology.  In April 1814, George Harrison of the U.S. Navy Depot in Philadelphia received instructions from Jones to send 15 of them "together with their apparatus" to Isaac Chauncey at Sackets Harbor.

Mr. Chambers and his two sons were hired to go along as instructors and trouble shooters.


The Armament of the USS Constitution Had Four Chambers Repeating Guns-- Part 1

From "USS Constitution: All Sails Up and Flying" by Olof A. Ericson.

A Listing of the armament of the USS Constitution during the War of 1812.

Under the command of Captain Isaac Hull:

Thirty 24-pdr long guns on gun deck
Twenty-four 32-pdr. carronades on spar deck
One 18-pdr. bow chaser
Twelve 3-inch Howitzer swivel guns (4 in each top)

The Constitution's armament remained the same while commanded by Commodore Bainbridge.

When Captain Stewart assumed command on February 20, 1815, it had the same armament as well as four Chambers repeating guns.


Tuesday, August 16, 2016

Machine Guns in the War of 1812: Somehing I Don't Understood

I am not sure if each barrel of the swivel gun fired all shots and then it would revolve to the next barrel  Or did it fire like the Gatling Gun with each barrel firing once and then a crank turned to fire the next barrel?

Not Sure.  --Brock-Perry

Machine Guns in the War of 1812-- Part 14: Joseph Chambers' Ten-Shot Repeating Musket

A photo of Chambers' repeating musket accompanied the article as well.  

It has two flintlocks/triggers.

Here is the caption:

Chambers' ten-shot repeating musket operated on the same principle as his swivel gun.

But the final round in the barrel would not have a hole, allowing the user to save a shot.  To fire it, he would have to pull a second trigger, tripping the rear hammer.


Machine Guns in the War of 1812-- Part 13: The Bullets

A photo of one of the rounds accompanied the article.  This is its caption.

The repeating swivel gun's rounds were tightly packed in the barrels.

A tiny hole running through the projectile was filled with a slow-burning powder which allowed the explosion of the first charge to set off the one behind it.


Monday, August 15, 2016

Machine Guns in the War of 1812-- Part 12: War Ends Before Used

Benjamin W. Crowinshield succeeded William Jones as Secretary of the Navy on 16 January 1815.  A little over a month later, Congress ratified the Treaty of Ghent, ending the War of 1812.

That, in turn was followed by the decision to send naval units to the Mediterranean Sea to put down a recurring Algerine pirate problem.  The Barbary Pirates had taken advantage of the U.S. being involved in the war with England to begin attacking American ships again.

One of the ships was known to have had Chambers' machine guns on board, but nothing is recorded saying that it was ever used.

The Chambers repeating weapons had caused a brief thrill, but ended their days being imoperative weapons staffed by people completely unskilled in their use.